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** Effectiveness factor for first-order irreversible reaction-diffusion system **

** Effectiveness factor plot, first-order reaction **

The Effectiveness Factor Analysis in Terms of Effective Diffusivities First-Order Reactions on Spherical Pellets. Useful expressions for catalyst effectiveness factors may also be developed in terms of the concept of effective diffusivities. This approach permits one to write an expression for the mass transfer within the pellet in terms of a form of Fick s first law based on the superficial cross-sectional area of a porous medium. We thereby circumvent the necessity of developing a detailed mathematical model of the pore geometry and size distribution. This subsection is devoted to an analysis of simultaneous mass transfer and chemical reaction in porous catalyst pellets in terms of the effective diffusivity. In order to use the analysis with confidence, the effective diffusivity should be determined experimentally, since it is difficult to obtain accurate estimates of this parameter on an a priori basis. [Pg.447]

Effectiveness factor plot for spherical catalyst particles based on effective diffusivities (first-order reaction). [Pg.450]

The Effectiveness Factor Analysis in Terms of Effective Diffusivities First-Order Reactions on Spherical Pellets... [Pg.387]

Let us compare computations of the effectiveness factor, using each of the three approximations we have described, with exact values from the complete dusty gas model. The calculations are performed for a first order reaction of the form A lOB in a spherical pellet. The stoichiometric coefficient 10 for the product is unrealistically large, but is chosen to emphasize any differences between the different approaches. [Pg.137]

The kinetic effect of increased pressure is also in agreement with the proposed mechanism. A pressure of 2000 atm increased the first-order rates of nitration of toluene in acetic acid at 20 °C and in nitromethane at 0 °C by a factor of about 2, and increased the rates of the zeroth-order nitrations of p-dichlorobenzene in nitromethane at 0 °C and of chlorobenzene and benzene in acetic acid at 0 °C by a factor of about 559. The products of the equilibrium (21a) have a smaller volume than the reactants and hence an increase in pressure speeds up the rate by increasing the formation of H2NO. Likewise, the heterolysis of the nitric acidium ion in equilibrium (22) and the reaction of the nitronium ion with the aromatic are processes both of which have a volume decrease, consequently the first-order reactions are also speeded up and to a greater extent than the zeroth-order reactions. [Pg.33]

The concentration of gas over the active catalyst surface at location / in a pore is ai [). The pore diffusion model of Section 10.4.1 linked concentrations within the pore to the concentration at the pore mouth, a. The film resistance between the external surface of the catalyst (i.e., at the mouths of the pore) and the concentration in the bulk gas phase is frequently small. Thus, a, and the effectiveness factor depends only on diffusion within the particle. However, situations exist where the film resistance also makes a contribution to rj so that Steps 2 and 8 must be considered. This contribution can be determined using the principle of equal rates i.e., the overall reaction rate equals the rate of mass transfer across the stagnant film at the external surface of the particle. Assume A is consumed by a first-order reaction. The results of the previous section give the overall reaction rate as a function of the concentration at the external surface, a. ... [Pg.366]

The overall effectiveness factor for the first-order reaction is defined using the bulk gas concentration a. [Pg.366]

FIGURE 10.3 Nonisothermal effectiveness factors for first-order reactions in spherical pellets. (Adapted from Weisz, P. B. and Hicks, J. S., Chem. Eng. Sci., 17, 265 (1962).)... [Pg.369]

Suppose that catalyst pellets in the shape of right-circular cylinders have a measured effectiveness factor of r] when used in a packed-bed reactor for a first-order reaction. In an effort to increase catalyst activity, it is proposed to use a pellet with a central hole of radius i /, < Rp. Determine the best value for RhjRp based on an effective diffusivity model similar to Equation (10.33). Assume isothermal operation ignore any diffusion limitations in the central hole, and assume that the ends of the cylinder are sealed to diffusion. You may assume that k, Rp, and eff are known. [Pg.379]

The two factors F, and FJ are very complex and not known. It is virtually certain, however, that each contains several terms. For example, where long-lived radiation-produced species influence the yield, Fj must contain terms such as A 1 — (At + l)c (l — e ) which expresses the average age of the atoms produced. The subsequent thermal effects are often describable in terms of first-order reactions so that FJ must contain one or more terms of the form (1 — Up to the present, there has not been enough information available on any system to make careful statement of Eq. (5) worthwhile. [Pg.215]

The internal effectiveness factor is a function of the generalized Thiele modulus (see for instance Krishna and Sie (1994), Trambouze et al. (1988), and Fogler (1986). For a first-order reaction ... [Pg.84]

Figure 3.32. Interna effectiveness factor as a function of the generalized Thiele modulus for a first order reaction. |

Fig. 5.4-14. Effectiveness factor versus Thiele modulus for first-order reaction. |

Thus a zero-order reaction appears to be 1/2 order and a second-order reaction appears to be 3/2 order when dealing with a fast reaction taking place in porous catalyst pellets. First-order reactions do not appear to undergo a shift in reaction order in going from high to low effectiveness factors. These statements presume that the combined diffusivity lies in the Knudsen range, so that this parameter is pressure independent. [Pg.454]

Effectiveness factor chart for first-order reaction in spherical pellets for y = 20. [From P. B. Weisz and J. S. Hicks, Chemical Engineering Science, 17 (265), 1962. Copyright 1962. Reprinted with permission of Pergamon Press.]... [Pg.461]

If the two competing reactions have the same concentration dependence, then the catalyst pore structure does not influence the selectivity because at each point within the pore structure the two reactions will proceed at the same relative rate, independent of the reactant concentration. However, if the two competing reactions differ in the concentration dependence of their rate expressions, the pore structure may have a significant effect on the product distribution. For example, if V is formed by a first-order reaction and IF by a second-order reaction, the observed yield of V will increase as the catalyst effectiveness factor decreases. At low effectiveness factors there will be a significant gradient in the reactant concentration as one moves radially inward. The lower reactant concentration within the pore structure would then... [Pg.469]

An exothermic first-order reaction A—h B is conducted in an FBCR, operating adiabatically and isobarically. The bed has a radius of 1.25 m and is 4 m long. The feed contains pure A at a concentration of 2.0 mol m-3, and flowing at q = 39.3 m3 s 1. The reaction may be diffusion limited assume that the relationship between r) and is 7] = (tanh The diffusivity is proportional to Tia, and Le for the particles is 0.50 mm. Determine the fractional conversion of A and the temperature at the bed outlet. How would your answer change, if (a) diffusion limitations were ignored, and (b) a constant effectiveness factor, based on inlet conditions, was assumed. [Pg.551]

In this section, you learned how to relate the rate of a chemical reaction to the concentrations of the reactants using the rate law. You classified reactions based on their reaction order. You determined the rate law equation from empirical data. Then you learned about the half-life of a first-order reaction. As you worked through sections 6.1 and 6.2, you may have wondered why factors such as concentration and temperature affect the rates of chemical reactions. In the following section, you will learn about some theories that have been developed to explain the effects of these factors. [Pg.287]

Since the ORR is a first-order reaction following Tafel kinetics, the solution of the mass conservation equation (eq 23) in a spherical agglomerate yields an analytic expression for the effectiveness factor... [Pg.467]

Derive an expression for the effectiveness factor of a porous catalyst slab of thickness 2L that has an effective pore diameter = 4e/pcS with a first-order reaction r" = VCa- Can you justity 4 = 4ep Sl... [Pg.319]

For the first order reaction, the external effectiveness factor has an analytical solution, which is given by ... [Pg.426]

Malkin s autocatalytic model is an extension of the first-order reaction to account for the rapid rise in reaction rate with conversion. Equation 1.3 does not obey any mechanistic model because it was derived by an empirical approach of fitting the calorimetric data to the rate equation such that the deviations between the experimental data and the predicted data are minimized. The model, however, both gives a good fit to the experimental data and yields a single pre-exponential factor (also called the front factor [64]), k, activation energy, U, and autocatalytic term, b. The value of the front factor k allows a comparison of the efficiency of various initiators in the initial polymerization of caprolactam [62]. On the other hand, the value of the autocatalytic term, b, describes the intensity of the self-acceleration effect during chain growth [62]. [Pg.51]

It is possible to combine the resistances of internal and external mass transfer through an overall effectiveness factor, for isothermal particles and first-order reaction. Two approaches can be applied. The general idea is that the catalyst can be divided into two parts its exterior surface and its interior surface. Therefore, the global reaction rates used here are per unit surface area of catalyst. [Pg.382]

First-order reactions without internal mass transfer limitations A number of reactions carried out at high temperatures are potentially mass-transfer limited. The surface reaction is so fast that the global rate is limited by the transfer of the reactants from the bulk to the exterior surface of the catalyst. Moreover, the reactants do not have the chance to travel within catalyst particles due to the use of nonporous catalysts or veiy fast reaction on the exterior surface of catalyst pellets. Consider a first-order reaction A - B or a general reaction of the form a A - bB - products, which is of first order with respect to A. For the following analysis, a zero expansion factor and an effectiveness factor equal to 1 are considered. [Pg.408]

For a first-order reaction and isothermal operation, the effectiveness factor is (eq. (5.77))... [Pg.480]

Figure 7.4 Effectiveness factor of spherical catalyst particle for first-order reaction. |

As an example, consider the effect of temperature on a first-order rate constant for a process with an activation energy, Ea, that is considered to be independent of temperature. Table 16.1 summarizes the calculated effect of temperature on the half-life of a first-order reaction, based on Equation 16.9 and the assumption that the preexponential factor, A, is independent of temperature. [Pg.491]

Introduced as a factor in the last term of Equation 20.52 is the dimensionless first-order kinetics parameter kttk. Variations in this parameter will allow the effect of any first-order reaction to be simulated. [Pg.602]

A zero-order reaction thus becomes a half-order reaction, a first-order reaction remains first order, whereas a second-order reaction has an apparent order of 3/2 when strongly influenced by diffusional effects. Because k and n are modified in the diffusion controlled region then, if the rate of the overall process is estimated by multiplying the chemical reaction rate by the effectiveness factor (as in equation 3.8), it is imperative to know the true rate of chemical reaction uninfluenced by diffusion effects. [Pg.123]

** Effectiveness factor for first-order irreversible reaction-diffusion system **

** Effectiveness factor plot, first-order reaction **

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