Number of delayed neutrons n produced per unit time per = X,C,(r) unit volume in the steady state = i [Pg.566]

Keepin and T. F. Wimett, Delayed Neutrons, Proc. Inlem. Conf. Peauful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, 1955, vol. 4, P/831, pp. 162-170, 1956. [Pg.567]

Total neutrons produced per unit volume per unit time [Pg.568]

The last step in the equation follows from the fact that each precursor decay yields one neutron, so that [Pg.568]

This set will serve as the fundamental relations to be used in the study of reactor power kinetics problems which include the effect of delayed neutrons. Note that in the present, somewhat generalized formulation there are three unknown functions P t), 0(f), aud (P(t). In order to obtain a complete solution, it is necessary to specify one of these functions. It is most convenient to give the cooling rate (P(f) (the power removed per unit volume from the reactor). With this information and the following set of initial conditions, the formulation of the problem is complete ... [Pg.581]

Note that the function has been used throughout. It is of interest to mention that the set (9.246) constitute the relations used by Ergen, Weinberg, and Welton in their studies of the kinetics of circulating-fuel reactors. These studies place emphasis on the stability aspects of the nonlinear set (9.246) and include the extension of the present theory to account for the effects of alternate fuel paths through the core with different transit times as well as the effects of delayed neutrons. [Pg.606]

Which of the following expressions most nearly demonstrates the effects of delayed neutrons on... [Pg.311]

Which of the following best explains the effect of delayed neutrons on reactor control ... [Pg.340]

Describe the effect of delayed neutrons on reactor control. [Pg.104]

As positive reactivity is added to the reactor, the effects, in terms of time response and generation time, of prompt neutrons are enhanced and the effects of delayed neutrons are diminished. [Pg.149]

Cheng, M., Dai, Z., 2014. Turbulent transport effect of delayed neutron precursor in molten salt fast reactor. Atomic Energy Science and Technology 48. [Pg.408]

A study of the temperature-dependent open-loop kinetics of the LMFR has been carried out by Fleck [4]. The effect of delayed neutrons and the delayed moderator temperature coefficient were neglected. Under these conditions. Fleck found that the reactor responded rapidly and with little overshoot in temperature when subjected to the largest permissible reactivity excursions. [Pg.720]

We assume a very general relationship between flux and reactivity, and then find the limitations on and the exact function of the reactivity. In order to find these limitations, we begin by establishing the diffusion equation for thermal neutrons in a nonequilibrium system. We next modify that diffusion equation for the effect of delayed neutrons and simplify. This gives us a differential equation involving flux and delayed-neutron-precursor density as space and time variables. Next, we write an equation for the net rate of formation of the delayed-neutron precursors. [Pg.79]

Since we are considering a critical reactor, we may assume that there is no primary source present. However, since we are interested in the effects of delayed neutrons, we must consider our source term to be composed of two parts the source of prompt fission neutrons and the source of delayed fission neutrons. If we let represent the fraction of the total number of fission neutrons that are delayed and the fraction that are associated with a single time of delay (a single precursor), then (1 - jS) is the fraction of fission neutrons that are emitted promptly. We can then write our prompt source term as before, except that it must be decreased by a factor (1 - jS). An additional source term must be included for the delay-neutron source. The rate of formation of delayed neutrons of the i h kind is equal to the rate of decay of its precursor, which is... [Pg.80]

The pre-experiment briefing session will include group discussions of such parameters as jS and and of the effect of delayed neutrons... [Pg.326]

The neutron kinetics was described with due regard for six groups of delayed neutrons. The core reactivity changes were determined by temperature effects of reactivity of fuel elements and the alloy as well as by water penetration into the core. [Pg.187]

The MMKFK-2 code system can be used for nuclear safety analysis, namely, for calculation of NS LMR SRP s Keir, L, a and Pen parameters (where Keff is an effective breeding factor L is a prompt neutron lifetime in the multiplication system under calculation Peff is an effective fraction of delayed neutrons a is a damping coefficient). [Pg.211]

From the brief description of proposed pulse and stationary methods for SRP subcriticality calculation it is quite obvious that they require the introduction of calculation constants, i.e. the specified values of delayed neutron lifetime and effective fraction for the pulse method and the neutron source for the stationary one. Thus, it follows that for these experimental methods to be realized the SRP s parameters that characterize multiplication properties have to be calculated with a good accruacy. [Pg.215]

The investigation of safety and more particularly of severe accident conditions is important for accelerator driven systems (ADS). Subcritical ADS could be of particular interest for the actinide transmutation from the safety point of view, because fast reactors with Neptunium, Americium and Curium have a much smaller fraction of delayed neutron emitters (compared to the common fuels and U), a small Doppler effect and possibly a positive coolant void coefficient. This poses a particular problem of control since the fraction of delayed neutrons is essential for the operation of a nuclear reactor in the critical state. In addition, the IRC presented in the past a review of accelerator-driven sub-critical systems with emphasis on safety related power transients followed by a survey of thorium specific problems of chemistry, metallurgy, fuel fabrication and proliferation resistance. [Pg.202]

The quantity j8 is called the effective fraction of delayed neutrons, and the kernel D r) describes the time distribution of the delayed neutron source which arises from fissions at r = 0. This kernel has two very important properties ... [Pg.312]

J. T. MIHALCZO, New Method for Measurement of the Effective Fraction of Delayed Neutrons from Fission, Nucl. Sci. Bug. (in press). [Pg.337]

Low power measurements with observation of delayed neutron effects. [Pg.10]

We have used here the approximation 6k o>, which is valid for small reactivities. By comparing (9.106) with (9.23), which gives the reactor period in the absence of delayed neutrons, it may be seen that the effect of the delays is to increase the effective mean lifetime of the neutrons. A result similar to (9.106) may be obtained heuristically by calculating an average lifetime for all neutrons thus,... [Pg.573]

When the reactor is shut down, the large nijmber of delayed neutrons cause the power to drop off slowly rather than instantaneously. If there were no such thing as the delayed neutron effect, the neutron... [Pg.68]

Critical - The condition existi when t e effective multiplication constant for a reactor is unity (or l) so that a self-supporting fission chain reaction can be maintained is said to be "critical." As commonly used, this means "delayed critical" and the reaction is depezident upon both prompt and delayed neutrons. Prompt critical is capable of sustaining a chain reaction without the aid of delayed neutrons. [Pg.110]

The delayed neutron fraction, p, is the fraction of delayed neutrons in the core at birth, that is, at high or fast energies. The effective delayed neutron fraction, is the... [Pg.115]

The effective delayed neutron fraction, 0gff, is used in equation (3.10) because it is this relative number of delayed neutrons actually reaching thermal energies and causing fission that measures the impact on reactor control. Since the total fraction of core neutrons is one, the denominator of equation (3.10) is one. Also, since is small, the numerator... [Pg.130]

There is a limit to the negative period that can be developed in a reactor by negative reactivity additions. Soon after the insertion of a large amount of negative reactivity such as a scram, the prompt neutron population decreases to a low level. Neutron population is predominantly the result of delayed neutrons which are produced by fission product decay. Within a short time, 2-3 minutes, all of the short lived delayed neutron precursors have decayed away. At this point, and from this point on, the core neutron population is sustained by decay of the longest lived fission product precursor, bromine-87, with a half life of = 55.72 seconds. Since the rate at which core neutron population decreases is determined by radioactive decay of bromine-87, an effective reactor period can be calculated by setting equations (2,9) and (4.7) equal. Neutron population, N will be used to replace activity, A, and power, P, respectively in the two equations. [Pg.153]

There is a prompt jump caused by immediate effects of prompt neutrons. A stable period follows which is determined by the amount of reactivity inserted and the delayed neutron generation time. [Pg.174]

Measurements of subcriticality relative to the effective delayed neutron fraction can be made by calibrating a reference fine control rod by means of asymptotic period measurements following rod withdrawal, or by inverse kinetics analysis of the reactor power response following rod drop or rod withdrawal (fitting the response using the delayed neutron kinetics equations).There are imcertainties in total delayed neutron yields and in the time dependence of delayed neutron emission, the accuracy of this reactivity scale being estimated to be 5%. [Pg.168]

The effective fraction of delayed neutrons is 0.0037 the lifetime of prompt neutrons is 4.5- lO s. [Pg.619]

Reactivity effects. A problem uniciue to circulating fuel reactors is the loss of delayed neutrons in the external circuit. Since the time spent by the delayed-neutron emitters outside the reactor core is generally greater than that spent within the core, a considerable fraction of the delayed neutrons may be wasted. In addition, since most of the delayed-neutron emitters are produced as gases, they may be carried off during degassing operations. For the delayed neutron fraction in thermal fission is only... [Pg.713]

The question of what qualitative effect the delayed neutrons have on the stability properties of a reactor system is an old warhorse in reactor dynamics. An account of this problem, dealing mainly with the linear case, was given by Smets (27) who showed that if a linear reactor system is asymptotically stable when the delayed neutrons are neglected, then it is not necessarily asymptotically stable if the delayed neutrons are included in the model. A linear numerical example showing that delayed neutrons may, in fact, destabilize a reactor has also been given by Baran and Meyer (9). [Pg.59]

© 2019 chempedia.info