The spin echo was discovered in 1950 by Erwin Hahn24 and is sometimes called a Hahn echo. The real significance of the spin-echo method lies not in its use to measure T2, but in the demonstration that an apparently irreversible dephasing of nuclear spins and decay of the FID (even to zero) can be reversed. As we see in Chapter 7, application of this concept is extremely important in obtaining narrow NMR lines in solids. We shall also encounter numerous examples in NMR of liquids where a spin echo is employed. [Pg.39]

NMR spectra are sensitive to many dynamic ( exchange ) processes. The rotating frame picture permits us to show qualitatively how NMR spectra respond to such processes, and the Bloch equations can be readily modified to account for them quantitatively. Many aspects of exchange will arise in later chapters. [Pg.39]

Likewise, an intermolecular exchange of protons between an alcohol and a phenol is an exchange process [Pg.40]

For cyclohexane, no chemical bonds are broken in the process, whereas the phenol-alcohol example does involve bond disruption. The same theoretical treatment applies to both situations so far as chemical shifts are concerned. However, as we shall see in later chapters, breaking of chemical bonds disrupts spin-spin coupling and thus introduces other considerations. [Pg.40]

G.V.Akulov, V.I.Bogdashkin, V.A.Moskalev, V.L.Nikolaev, A.V.Tzimbalist, V.V.Shashov, V.G.Shestakov - Mobile betatron installation on energy of 25 MeV for radiative visualization of dynamic processes and flaw detection in field conditions. Atomic science and technique problems. Electrophysical equipment. -1987,v.23,p. 19-21. [Pg.515]

The SHG and SFG teclmiques are also suitable for studying dynamical processes occurring on slower time scales. Indeed, many valuable studies of adsorption, desorption, difhision and other surface processes have been perfomied on time scales of milliseconds to seconds. [Pg.1296]

Eisenthal K B 1992 Equilibrium and dynamic processes at interfaces by second harmonic and sum frequency generation Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 43 627-61... [Pg.1300]

We make one important note here regarding nomenclature. Early explanations of CIDNP invoked an Overhauser-type mechanism, implying a dynamic process similar to spin relaxation hence the word dynamic m the CIDNP acronym. This is now known to be incorrect, but the acronym has prevailed in its infant fomi. [Pg.1591]

STM has not as yet proved to be easily applicable to the area of ultrafast surface phenomena. Nevertheless, some success has been achieved in the direct observation of dynamic processes with a larger timescale. Kitamura et al [23], using a high-temperature STM to scan single lines repeatedly and to display the results as a time-ver.sn.s-position pseudoimage, were able to follow the difflision of atomic-scale vacancies on a heated Si(OOl) surface in real time. They were able to show that vacancy diffusion proceeds exclusively in one dimension, along the dimer row. [Pg.1681]

Fourkas J T and Payer M D 1992 The transient grating a holographic window to dynamic processes Acc. Chem. Res. 25 227-33... [Pg.2000]

These exchanges often occur while the system is in macroscopic equilibrium—the sample itself remains the same and the dynamics may be invisible to other teclmiques. It is merely the enviromnent of a given nucleus that changes. Since NMR follows an individual nucleus, it can easily follow these dynamic processes. This is just one of several reasons that the study of chemical exchange by NMR is important. [Pg.2090]

Rapaport D C 1991 Multi-million particle molecular dynamics processing Comput. Phys. Commun. 62 217-28... [Pg.2289]

Studies of single molecules in cryogenic solids, while limited to a relatively small number of cliromophore/ matrix combinations (and small variations tliereupon), have covered a wide range of spectroscopic and dynamic processes [66,62]. [Pg.2493]

Molecular dynamics tracks tire temporal evolution of a microscopic model system tlirough numerical integration of tire equations of motion for tire degrees of freedom considered. The main asset of molecular dynamics is tliat it provides directly a wealtli of detailed infonnation on dynamical processes. [Pg.2537]

A major drawback to the approaches that use preconstructed PESs is that there are many more interesting systems undergoing reactive dynamical processes than there are available PESs. It would be much better if the electronic structure part of the problem, which provides the forces for the nuclear dynamics, could be performed simultaneously with the dynamics part, thus making possible the treatment of systems for which preconstructed PESs... [Pg.222]

MD simulations are valuable tools if one wants to gain detailed insight into fast dynamical processes of proteins and other biological macromolecules at atomic resolution. But since conventional MD simulations are confined to the study of very fast processes, conformational flooding represents a complementary and powerful tool to predict and understand also slow conformational motions. Another obvious application is an enhanced refinement of Xray- or NMR-structures. [Pg.93]

The preferable theoretical tools for the description of dynamical processes in systems of a few atoms are certainly quantum mechanical calculations. There is a large arsenal of powerful, well established methods for quantum mechanical computations of processes such as photoexcitation, photodissociation, inelastic scattering and reactive collisions for systems having, in the present state-of-the-art, up to three or four atoms, typically. " Both time-dependent and time-independent numerically exact algorithms are available for many of the processes, so in cases where potential surfaces of good accuracy are available, excellent quantitative agreement with experiment is generally obtained. In addition to the full quantum-mechanical methods, sophisticated semiclassical approximations have been developed that for many cases are essentially of near-quantitative accuracy and certainly at a level sufficient for the interpretation of most experiments.These methods also are com-... [Pg.365]

The computational efficiency is a major advantage of CSP and CI-CSP, and we expect that in the forthcoming few years CSP-based methods will be extensively used as practical tools for the study of an increased range of dynamical processes in large systems. [Pg.376]

Dyna.micPerforma.nce, Most models do not attempt to separate the equiUbrium behavior from the mass-transfer behavior. Rather they treat adsorption as one dynamic process with an overall dynamic response of the adsorbent bed to the feed stream. Although numerical solutions can be attempted for the rigorous partial differential equations, simplifying assumptions are often made to yield more manageable calculating techniques. [Pg.286]

Wettabihty is beheved to be a dynamic process involving interactions of the ocular environment and lens material (44). No method has been found to predict accurately the in vivo wettabihty of a lens material. [Pg.101]

N. Bhat and T. J. McAvoy, "Dynamic Process Modeling via Neural Computing," paper presented atMJOE National Meeting, San Francisco, 1989. [Pg.541]

A number of other syntheses were discussed by Takeuchi and Furusaki and the most common involved reaction of hydroxylamine with selected a,/3-unsaturated ketones to give isoxazolidine-3- or -5-ols, which exist in equilibrium with an open-chain counterpart (77AHC(21)207). A similar equilibrium was observed in the reaction of a,/3-unsaturated ketones with N-hydroxyurea. The geometric orientation of the ring substituents was studied as a dynamic process (Scheme 158) (75TL2337). [Pg.111]

Physical Models versus Empirical Models In developing a dynamic process model, there are two distinct approaches that can be... [Pg.719]

Simulation of Dynamic Models Linear dynamic models are particularly useful for analyzing control-system behavior. The insight gained through linear analysis is invaluable. However, accurate dynamic process models can involve large sets of nonlinear equations. Analytical solution of these models is not possible. Thus, in these cases, one must turn to simulation approaches to study process dynamics and the effect of process control. Equation (8-3) will be used to illustrate the simulation of nonhnear processes. If dcjdi on the left-hand side of Eq. (8-3) is replaced with its finite difference approximation, one gets ... [Pg.720]

The MPC control problem illustrated in Eqs. (8-66) to (8-71) contains a variety of design parameters model horizon N, prediction horizon p, control horizon m, weighting factors Wj, move suppression factor 6, the constraint limits Bj, Q, and Dj, and the sampling period At. Some of these parameters can be used to tune the MPC strategy, notably the move suppression faclor 6, but details remain largely proprietary. One commercial controller, Honeywell s RMPCT (Robust Multivariable Predictive Control Technology), provides default tuning parameters based on the dynamic process model and the model uncertainty. [Pg.741]

COMPUTER SIMULATION OF DYNAMIC PROCESSES IN COMPLEX ELECTROLYTIC MEDIA... [Pg.28]

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