experimental measurements with p= 123.4 and a = 12.9, draw the entire probability distribution curve for the population of all experimental measurements in the class studied. [Pg.29]

Table 2.26a Ordinates (V) of the Normal Distribution Curve at Values of z 2.121... |

Table 2.26b Areas Under the Normal Distribution Curve from 0 to z 2.122... |

Table 2.26a lists the height of an ordinate (Y) as a distance z from the mean, and Table 2.26b the area under the normal curve at a distance z from the mean, expressed as fractions of the total area, 1.000. Returning to Fig. 2.10, we note that 68.27% of the area of the normal distribution curve lies within 1 standard deviation of the center or mean value. Therefore, 31.73% lies outside those limits and 15.86% on each side. Ninety-five percent (actually 95.43%) of the area lies within 2 standard deviations, and 99.73% lies within 3 standard deviations of the mean. Often the last two areas are stated slightly different viz. 95% of the area lies within 1.96cr (approximately 2cr) and 99% lies within approximately 2.5cr. The mean falls at exactly the 50% point for symmetric normal distributions. [Pg.194]

A two-tailed test is required that is, both tails on the distribution curve are involved ... [Pg.201]

Column Efficiency. Under ideal conditions the profile of a solute band resembles that given by a Gaussian distribution curve (Fig. 11.1). The efficiency of a chromatographic system is expressed by the effective plate number defined from the chromatogram of a single band. [Pg.1105]

Fig. 1.13 Gaussian particle size distributions. Curve I represents a more uniform size distribution than does Curve II. |

Now the relationship between v and A is given by the size distribution curve the value of A merely represents the lengths of the particles measured in terms of a particular, arbitrary, unit. Thus, if the size distribution curve remains of exactly the same shape during the grinding process, the values of... [Pg.31]

Thus for a fixed size distribution curve we have... [Pg.33]

The significance of the various columns is explained in the notes below the table, which enable the calculations of 6v l6r to be followed through. Only the first few lines are reproduced, by way of illustration the pore size distribution curve resulting from the complete table is given in Fig. 3.18 (Curve A), as a plot of 6i j6r against f. [Pg.136]

In using the table for pore size calculations, it is necessary to read off the values of the uptake from the experimental isotherm for the values of p/p° corresponding to the different r values given in the table. Unfortunately, these values of relative pressure do not correspond to division marks on the scale of abscissae, so that care is needed if inaccuracy is to be avoided. This difficulty can be circumvented by basing the standard table on even intervals of relative pressure rather than of r but this then leads to uneven spacings of r . Table 3.6 illustrates the application of the standard table to a specific example—the desorption branch of the silica isotherm already referred to. The resultant distribution curve appears as Curve C in Fig. 3.18. [Pg.145]

The curve for core size distribution—Foster s plot of 6 j6r against r —is also shown, as Curve D, in Fig. 3.18. It differs markedly from the pore size distribution curves, clearly showing that the corrections for the film thinning effect which have become possible since Foster s day, are of first-order importance. [Pg.145]

Everett concludes that in systems where pore blocking can occur, pore size distribution curves derived from the desorption branch of the isotherm are likely to give a misleading picture of the pore structure in particular the size distribution will appear to be much narrower than it actually is. Thus the adsorption branch is to be preferred unless network effects are known to be absent. [Pg.151]

Fig. 3.19 Contrast between the pore size distribution curves based on the adsorption and the desorption branch of the hysteresis loop respectively. |

Confidence Intervals for Normal Distribution Curves Between the Limits p zo... [Pg.75]

The data in Table 4.12 are best displayed as a histogram, in which the frequency of occurrence for equal intervals of data is plotted versus the midpoint of each interval. Table 4.13 and figure 4.8 show a frequency table and histogram for the data in Table 4.12. Note that the histogram was constructed such that the mean value for the data set is centered within its interval. In addition, a normal distribution curve using X and to estimate p, and is superimposed on the histogram. [Pg.77]

Histogram for data in Tabie 4.12. A normai distribution curve for the data, based onX and s, is superimposed on the histogram. [Pg.79]

The second complication is that the values of z shown in Table 4.11 are derived for a normal distribution curve that is a function of O, not s. Although is an unbiased estimator of O, the value of for any randomly selected sample may differ significantly from O. To account for the uncertainty in estimating O, the term z in equation 4.11 is replaced with the variable f, where f is defined such that f > z at all confidence levels. Thus, equation 4.11 becomes... [Pg.80]

Since significance tests are based on probabilities, their interpretation is naturally subject to error. As we have already seen, significance tests are carried out at a significance level, a, that defines the probability of rejecting a null hypothesis that is true. For example, when a significance test is conducted at a = 0.05, there is a 5% probability that the null hypothesis will be incorrectly rejected. This is known as a type 1 error, and its risk is always equivalent to a. Type 1 errors in two-tailed and one-tailed significance tests are represented by the shaded areas under the probability distribution curves in Figure 4.10. [Pg.84]

Relationship between confidence intervals and results of a significance test, (a) The shaded area under the normal distribution curves shows the apparent confidence intervals for the sample based on fexp. The solid bars in (b) and (c) show the actual confidence intervals that can be explained by indeterminate error using the critical value of (a,v). In part (b) the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. In part (c) the null hypothesis is retained. [Pg.85]

Normal distribution curves showing the definition of detection limit and limit of identification (LOI). The probability of a type 1 error is indicated by the dark shading, and the probability of a type 2 error is indicated by light shading. [Pg.95]

Interpreting Control Charts The purpose of a control chart is to determine if a system is in statistical control. This determination is made by examining the location of individual points in relation to the warning limits and the control limits, and the distribution of the points around the central line. If we assume that the data are normally distributed, then the probability of finding a point at any distance from the mean value can be determined from the normal distribution curve. The upper and lower control limits for a property control chart, for example, are set to +3S, which, if S is a good approximation for O, includes 99.74% of the data. The probability that a point will fall outside the UCL or LCL, therefore, is only 0.26%. The... [Pg.718]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.9 , Pg.10 , Pg.11 , Pg.12 , Pg.13 , Pg.14 , Pg.15 , Pg.16 , Pg.17 , Pg.18 , Pg.19 , Pg.20 , Pg.21 , Pg.22 , Pg.23 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.168 , Pg.169 , Pg.170 , Pg.171 , Pg.172 , Pg.173 ]

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