Section 6.8 compares the GBD approach and the OAbased approaches with regard to the formulation, handling of nonlinear equality constraints, nonlinearities in y and joint x — y, the primal problem, the master problem, and the quality of the lower bounds. [Pg.211]

Small-medium problems with bound, equality and inequality linear constraints, nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. nH is the number of nonlinear equality constraints and HName is the name of the function where the nonlinear equality constraints are calculated. pL and pU are the bounds of nonlinear inequality constraints and PName is the name of the function where the nonlinear inequality constraints are calculated. The matrices E and D are dense (BzzMatrix) ... [Pg.444]

Large sparse problems with bound, equality and inequality linear constraints, nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. GisaBzzMatrixSparseS ymme -tricLocked class object where the structure ofthe Hessian ofthe function (13.1) is provided. nH is the number of nonlinear equality constraints, HName is the name ofthe function where the nonlinear equality constraints are calculated, H is the name of the BzzMatrixSparseLocked matrix with the structure of the nonlinear equality constraints and nlHisaBzzVectorlnt whom elements indicate which variables are really nonlinear in the systemofnonlinear equality constraints. pL and p U are the bounds of nonlinear inequality constraints and PN ame is the name of the function where the nonlinear inequality constraints are calculated, P is the name of the BzzMatrixSparseLocked matrix with the structure of the nonlinear inequality constraints and nlP is a BzzVectorInt whose elements indicate which variables are really nonlinear in the system of nonlinear inequality constraints. The matrices E and D are sparse (BzzMatrixSparseLocked) ... [Pg.444]

Liu C, Zhao Z, Chen B (2007) The bouncing motion appearing in a robotic system with unilateral constraint. Nonlinear Dyn 49 217-232... [Pg.211]

Subroutine REGRES. REGRES is the main subroutine responsible for performing the regression. It solves for the parameters in nonlinear models where all the measured variables are subject to error and are related by one or two constraints. It uses subroutines FUNG, FUNDR, SUMSQ, and SYMINV. [Pg.217]

Thus loops, utility paths, and stream splits offer the degrees of freedom for manipulating the network cost. The problem is one of multivariable nonlinear optimization. The constraints are only those of feasible heat transfer positive temperature difference and nonnegative heat duty for each exchanger. Furthermore, if stream splits exist, then positive bremch flow rates are additional constraints. [Pg.392]

The second-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor ( 3> 2, fOj) introduced earlier will, in general, consist of 27 distinct elements, each displaying its own dependence on the frequencies oip cci2 and = oi 012). There are, however, constraints associated with spatial and time-reversal symmetry that may reduce the complexity of for a given material [32, 33 and Ml- Flere we examine the role of spatial synnnetry. [Pg.1273]

molecular mechanics optimizations, which use Cartesian coordinates. Internal constraints are now relatively complicated, nonlinear functions of the coordinates, e.g., a distance constraint between atoms andJ in the system is — AjI" + (Vj — + ( , - and this... [Pg.2347]

The form of the Hamiltonian impedes efficient symplectic discretization. While symplectic discretization of the general constrained Hamiltonian system is possible using, e.g., the methods of Jay [19], these methods will require the solution of a nontrivial nonlinear system of equations at each step which can be quite costly. An alternative approach is described in [10] ( impetus-striction ) which essentially converts the Lagrange multiplier for the constraint to a differential equation before solving the entire system with implicit midpoint this method also appears to be quite costly on a per-step basis. [Pg.355]

McCabe-Thiele diagrams for nonlinear and more practical systems with pertinent inequaUty constraints are illustrated in Figures 11 and 12. The convex isotherms are generally observed for 2eohtic adsorbents, particularly in hydrocarbon separation systems, whereas the concave isotherms are observed for ion-exchange resins used in sugar separations. [Pg.298]

In real-life problems ia the process iadustry, aeady always there is a nonlinear objective fuactioa. The gradieats deteroiiaed at any particular poiat ia the space of the variables to be optimized can be used to approximate the objective function at that poiat as a linear fuactioa similar techniques can be used to represent nonlinear constraints as linear approximations. The linear programming code can then be used to find an optimum for the linearized problem. At this optimum poiat, the objective can be reevaluated, the gradients can be recomputed, and a new linearized problem can be generated. The new problem can be solved and the optimum found. If the new optimum is the same as the previous one then the computations are terminated. [Pg.79]

Successive Quadratic Programming (SQP) The above approach to finding the optimum is called a feasible path method, as it attempts at all times to remain feasible with respect to the equahty and inequahty constraints as it moves to the optimum. A quite different method exists called the Successive Quadratic Programming (SQP) method, which only requires one be feasible at the final solution. Tests that compare the GRG and SQP methods generaUy favor the SQP method so it has the reputation of being one of the best methods known for nonlinear optimization for the type of problems considered here. [Pg.486]

With many variables and constraints, linear and nonlinear programming may be applicable, as well as various numerical gradient search methods. Maximum principle and dynamic programming are laborious and have had only limited applications in this area. The various mathematical techniques are explained and illustrated, for instance, by Edgar and Himmelblau Optimization of Chemical Processes, McGraw-Hill, 1988). [Pg.705]

Constrained Optimization When constraints exist and cannot be eliminated in an optimization problem, more general methods must be employed than those described above, since the unconstrained optimum may correspond to unrealistic values of the operating variables. The general form of a nonhuear programming problem allows for a nonlinear objec tive function and nonlinear constraints, or... [Pg.744]

Nonlinear Programming The most general case for optimization occurs when both the objective function and constraints are nonlinear, a case referred to as nonlinear programming. While the idea behind the search methods used for unconstrained multivariable problems are applicable, the presence of constraints complicates the solution procedure. [Pg.745]

One important class of nonlinear programming techniques is called quadratic programming (QP), where the objective function is quadratic and the constraints are hnear. While the solution is iterative, it can be obtained qmckly as in linear programming. This is the basis for the newest type of constrained multivariable control algorithms called model predic tive control. The dominant method used in the refining industiy utilizes the solution of a QP and is called dynamic matrix con-... [Pg.745]

The second classification is the physical model. Examples are the rigorous modiiles found in chemical-process simulators. In sequential modular simulators, distillation and kinetic reactors are two important examples. Compared to relational models, physical models purport to represent the ac tual material, energy, equilibrium, and rate processes present in the unit. They rarely, however, include any equipment constraints as part of the model. Despite their complexity, adjustable parameters oearing some relation to theoiy (e.g., tray efficiency) are required such that the output is properly related to the input and specifications. These modds provide more accurate predictions of output based on input and specifications. However, the interactions between the model parameters and database parameters compromise the relationships between input and output. The nonlinearities of equipment performance are not included and, consequently, significant extrapolations result in large errors. Despite their greater complexity, they should be considered to be approximate as well. [Pg.2555]

Several structural theories of piezoelectricity [72M01, 72M02, 72A05, 74H03] have been proposed but apparently none have been found entirely satisfactory, and nonlinear piezoelectricity is not explicitly treated. With such limited second-order theories, physical interpretations of higher-order piezoelectric constants are speculative, but such speculations may help to place some constraints on an acceptable piezoelectric theory. [Pg.82]

The term nonlinear in nonlinear programming does not refer to a material or geometric nonlinearity but instead refers to the nonlinearity in the mathematical optimization problem itself. The first step in the optimization process involves answering questions such as what is the buckling response, what is the vibration response, what is the deflection response, and what is the stress response Requirements usually exist for every one of those response variables. Putting those response characteristics and constraints together leads to an equation set that is inherently nonlinear, irrespective of whether the material properties themselves are linear or nonlinear, and that nonlinear equation set is where the term nonlinear programming comes from. [Pg.429]

The final stages of the methodology consist of eliminating some of the less Informative tests and adding other tests to provide data needed to quantify nonlinear relationships The resulting experimental design then consists of a mix of conditional main effects and conditional Interactions It represents a compromise among scientific, statistical, and economic constraints ... [Pg.68]

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