Table 5.2 lists NHV values for a certain number of pure organic compounds while Table 5.3 gives values of NHVj and NHV for conventional motor and heating fuels. [Pg.182]

However, this conventional method presents a certain number of limitations. In the first place, the traditional end-use property itself can be difficult to determine. Consider the cetane number for example is it a good characterization of diesel fuel with respect to its behavior in commercial diesel engines In the second place, concern for protecting the environment imposes new specifications which are often specifications linked to the composition of products very low content of certain contaminants, reduced levels of certain families of compounds, or even a specific compound as already discussed. [Pg.486]

The selection and sequence of tubes to be inspected are known at the start of a measurement campaign. After a tube has been measured, the reference is transmitted to the pre-fetching module. This latest can, through an anticipation window, copies a certain number of records on the hard disk. [Pg.1025]

The derivation that follows is essentially that given by Langmuir [9] in 1918, in which one writes separately the rates of evaporation and of condensation. The surface is assumed to consist of a certain number of sites S of which S are occupied and Sq = S - S arc free. The rate of evaporation is taken to be proportional to 5, or equal tokiSi, and the rate of condensation proportional to the bare surface So and to the gas pressure, or equal to k PSo. At equilibrium. [Pg.604]

For these sequences the value of Gj, is less than a certain small value g. For such sequences the folding occurs directly from the ensemble of unfolded states to the NBA. The free energy surface is dominated by the NBA (or a funnel) and the volume associated with NBA is very large. The partition factor <6 is near unify so that these sequences reach the native state by two-state kinetics. The amplitudes in (C2.5.7) are nearly zero. There are no intennediates in the pathways from the denatured state to the native state. Fast folders reach the native state by a nucleation-collapse mechanism which means that once a certain number of contacts (folding nuclei) are fonned then the native state is reached very rapidly [25, 26]. The time scale for reaching the native state for fast folders (which are nonnally associated with those sequences for which topological fmstration is minimal) is found to be... [Pg.2657]

The sti ong and weak interaction regions of the internal configuration space is divided into a certain number of spherical hypeiradial shells. The 2D diabatic... [Pg.213]

The easiest way to extract a set of objects from the basic dataset, in order to compile a test set, is to do so randomly. This means that one selects a certain number of compounds from the initial (primary) dataset without considering the nature of these compounds. As mentioned above, this approach can lead to errors. [Pg.223]

HyperChem allows the visualization of two-dimensional contour plots for a certain number of variables, fh esc contour plots show the values of a spatial variable (a property f(x,y,z) in normal th rce-dimensional Cartesian space ) on a plane that is parallel to the screen. To obtain these contour plots the user needs to specify ... [Pg.240]

Most programs will stop trying to converge a problem after a certain number of iterations. In a few rare cases, the wave function will converge if given more than the default number of iterations. [Pg.195]

A certain number of seienazolidines were first prepared by Draquet and Renson (73) from aziridine using two different pathways (Table X-16j. [Pg.265]

Despite the inconveniences, a certain number of studies have been carried out, particularly concerning dyes containing azomethine groups. Such as hydrazones, pyrazolones, formazans, and selenazoles quinoids. Saturated heterocycles, that is, selenazolines and selenazolidines. have also been tackled. Selenium derivatives for pharmacological or physiological applications are little developed by comparison with their thiazole homologs. [Pg.275]

The most general pathways to thiazoles bearing such groups as alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, and alkenyl, substituted or not by functional groups, are the cyclization reactions described in Chapter II. A certain number of indirect methods also exist, though only a few examples of each are given here. Others are discussed in the following chapters, with the more important references cited here. [Pg.339]

The measurement of pK for bases as weak as thiazoles can be undertaken in two ways by potentiometric titration and by absorption spectrophotometry. In the cases of thiazoles, the second method has been used (140, 148-150). A certain number of anomalies in the results obtained by potentiometry in aqueous medium using Henderson s classical equation directly have led to the development of an indirect method of treatment of the experimental results, while keeping the Henderson equation (144). [Pg.355]

Analytical chemistry has in recent years been equipped with a number of powerful means of investigation. Their application, especially that of gas-phase chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer, has demonstrated the presence of a certain number of thiazoles in natural products such as fruits or cereals (287. 288, 297). The many results are shown in Table III-59. [Pg.395]

Characterize a potential energy surface for a certain number of atoms, i.e., detect all the local energy minima, the global minimum on the surface, and all the transition states between different minima. [Pg.65]

Creep stresses used for design purposes are usually determined based on two criteria the stress for a given acceptable creep deformation after a certain number of hours, which ranges from 0.01 to 1% deformation in 1000 hours and the nominal... [Pg.158]

A certain number of the tests will have been designated as witness tests. One is usually the hydrostatic test, which does not require an engineer but can be witnessed by an inspector. As a cost-saving measure, if engineers from another project happen to be in the plant at the time of the hydrostatic test, they may be able to arrange to witness the test, because the duration of the test is normally not long. It may take a total of two hours. [Pg.459]

Water sample collection techniques differ depending on the source being tested. The minimum number of water samples collected from a distribution system which are examined each month for coliforms is a function of the population. For example, the minimum number required for populations of 1,000 and 100,000 are 2 and 100, respectively. To ascertain compliance with the bacteriological requirements of drinking water standards, a certain number of positive tests must not be exceeded. When 10-ml standard portions are examined, not more than 10 percent in any month should be positive (that is, the upper limit of coliform density is an average of one per 100 ml). [Pg.461]

Predictive maintenance is part of planned preventive maintenance. In order to determine the frequency of checks you need to predict when failure may occur. Will failure occur at some future time, after a certain number of operating hours, when... [Pg.360]

As an illustration of the biased sampling method in application to the problems of polymer chain adsorption on a hard wall we shall recall here briefly the procedure used on a diamond lattice [35]. Starting the chain at the origin, the first bond is fixed at the plane and all the following bonds are determined at random apart from the non-reversal condition. Suppose, after a certain number i of steps, that the (/+l)st monomer reaches the plane at z = 0 again. With = 4 on the diamond lattice one has the probability p = /3 for each new possible choice of a bond. Thus in... [Pg.560]

There me two major types of risk ina. imuin individual risk and population risk. Maximum risk is defined e.xacUy as it implies, Uiat is the ma.ximum risk to an individual person. Tliis person is considered to have a 70-year lifetime of exposure to a process or a chemical. Population risk is Uie risk to a population. It is expressed as a certain number of deaths per Uiousand or per million people. For example, a fatal annual risk of 2 x 10 refers to 2 deatlis per year for every million individuals. These risks are based on very conser ative assumptions, llich may yield too high a risk. [Pg.295]

In the PPP model, each first-row atom such as carbon and nitrogen contributes a single basis functiqn to the n system. Just as in Huckel theory, the orbitals x, m e not rigorously defined but we can visualize them as 2p j atomic orbitals. Each first-row atom contributes a certain number of ar-electrons—in the pyridine case, one electron per atom just as in Huckel 7r-electron theory. [Pg.137]

The next series of alcohols to be examined is that in which the members retain the benzene nucleus in a more or less substituted -condition, as distinguished from those in which the benzene nucleus has been so altered as to bring the alcohols within the series known as the terpene alcohols A certain number of these alcohols are found in nature, but some of them are prepared synthetically, and, although not yet found naturally, are exceedingly useful in the preparation of perfumes. [Pg.126]

The aldehydes of the cyclic series include a number of compounds which are of common occurrence in essential oils, and a certain number which are prepai ed synthetically for perfumery purposes. [Pg.190]

Strictly speaking, a phase is any point on such a curve corresponding to a certain number of degrees of rotation. Points a and b on curve q are different phases of the curve, sketch A,... [see Figure 14-9]. Degrees of rotation correspond to an actual amount of time. On a 60-cycle curve, one cycle or 360 deg equal /go sec, 180 deg equal /i2o sec, etc. Difference in phase represents difference in time. Two curves are in phase if... [Pg.626]

Pascal names (of units, variables, array elements, etc.), consisting of an initial letter followed by letters or digits, may be as long as needed in standard Pascal however, in practice, most compilers require that a name be unique within a certain number of characters. (See Table 1-28 for reserved words which may not be used as names.)... [Pg.124]

Dimensional Analysis. In the design of rather simple devices or systems, dimensional analysis can be used in conjunction with physical model experimental investigations to gain insight into the performance of a particular design concept. It is usually possible to define the performance of a simple device or system with a certain number of well chosen geometric and performance related variables that describe the device or system. Once these variables have been selected, dimensional analysis can be used to ... [Pg.371]

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