Stress, or force per unit area (SI units Pa or N/m2), has been defined as the intensity of the internal components of forces in a certain point through a given plane of a body. Compressive stress (or pressure) refers to the perpendicular components toward a normal plane on which compressive forces act. Different denominations can be used for stresses that characterize compression of a certain volume of powder mass natural and engineering stress, compressive, tensile, or shear stress, yield stress, unconfined yield stress, and principal stresses. [Pg.236]

SI unit of area = (SI unit of length) X (SI unit of length)... [Pg.24]

The dynamic viscosity, or coefficient of viscosity, 77 of a Newtonian fluid is defined as the force per unit area necessary to maintain a unit velocity gradient at right angles to the direction of flow between two parallel planes a unit distance apart. The SI unit is pascal-second or newton-second per meter squared [N s m ]. The c.g.s. unit of viscosity is the poise [P] 1 cP = 1 mN s m . The dynamic viscosity decreases with the temperature approximately according to the equation log rj = A + BIT. Values of A and B for a large number of liquids are given by Barrer, Trans. Faraday Soc. 39 48 (1943). [Pg.496]

Pressure is defined as force per unit of area. The International System of Units (SI) pressure unit is the pascal (Pa), defined as 1.0 N /m. Conversion factors from non-SI units to pascal are given in Table 1 (see also Units and conversion factors front matter). An asterisk after the sixth decimal place indicates that the conversion factor is exact and all subsequent digits are 2ero. Relationships that are not followed by an asterisk are either the results of physical measurements or are only approximate. The factors are written as numbers greater than 1 and less than 10, with 6 or fewer decimal places (1). [Pg.19]

Area. The SI unit of area is the square meter (m ). The hectare (ha) is a special name for the square hectometer (hm ). Large land or water areas are generally expressed in hectares or in square kilometers (km ). [Pg.309]

SI units are widely used in the gas industry. Imperial units are also employed, particularly for measuring gas and for its calorific value. In some areas SI and Imperial units can co-exist, particularly thermal ratings, this can equally be expressed in kW and MW or in Btu/h and therm/h. [Pg.293]

Pascal An SI unit of pressure the pressure exerted by the force of 1 newton on an area of 1 square meter, 104,635 Paschen series, 138 Pasteur, Louis, 601 Pauli exclusion principle, 141-143 Pauling, Linus, 185 Pentyl propionate, 596t Peptide linkage The—C—N—group... [Pg.694]

The product of an area and an appropriate view factor is known as the exchange area which, in SI units, is expressed in m2. In this way. A Fn is known as exchange area 1 2,... [Pg.448]

When we consider the mechanical properties of polymeric materials, and in particular when we design methods of testing them, the parameters most generally considered are stress, strain, and Young s modulus. Stress is defined as the force applied per unit cross sectional area, and has the basic dimensions of N m in SI units. These units are alternatively combined into the derived unit of Pascals (abbreviated Pa). In practice they are extremely small, so that real materials need to be tested with a very large number of Pa... [Pg.95]

The accepted SI unit for pressure is the pascal (Pa). Pressure is defined as force per unit area, P/, so the pascai can be expressed by combining the SI units for these two variabies. The SI unit of force is the newton (N), and area is measured in square meters (m ). Thus, the pascai is 1 N/m. Expressed in pascais, the numericai vaiue of atmospheric pressure is quite iarge. By intemationai agreement, 1 atm is defined exactiy in terms of pascais ... [Pg.283]

Here, / is the electric field, k is the electrical conductivity or electrolytic conductivity in the Systeme International (SI) unit, X the thermal conductivity, and D the diffusion coefficient. is the electric current per unit area, J, is the heat flow per unit area per unit time, and Ji is the flow of component i in units of mass, or mole, per unit area per unit time. [Pg.120]

In this series of texts SI units are used as standard practice. However in areas of activity where their use has not become general practice, eg biologically based laboratories, the earlier defined units are used. This is explained in the study guide to each unit. [Pg.240]

The specific conductance (k) of a solution is defined as the conductance (S) per centimetre of a solution that has a cross-sectional area of 1 cm2, and is measured in S cm-1 (or in non-SI units as fl-1 cm-1). The molar conductance (A) is the specific conductance of a solution corrected for the concentration of ions in the solution. A = k X volume of solution which contains 1 gram mole. [Pg.182]

A current / of 23 mA is passed through an electrode with an area A of 1.07cm. What is the charge density, /, as expressed in both SI units and electrochemistry units ... [Pg.7]

The units of area appear everywhere in electroanalysis. For example, the diffusion coefficient D has the SI unit of m s , but such usage is so rare that a good generalization suggests that they are never used. In practice, electrochemists cite D with the units of cm s". ... [Pg.7]

The area of an electrode is finite and essentially constant. Similarly, the thickness of the electric double-layer does not vary by a large amount. As an empirical rule, we find that the double-layer capacitance has a value in the range 10-40 pF cm, where F is the SI unit of capacitance, the farad. Note that a capacitance without an area is not particularly useful - we need to know the complete capacitance. [Pg.118]

The net transfer of solutes along a concentration gradient via molecular diffusion is an example of a mass flux. As illustrated in Figure 3 8, a mass flux of solutes can be thought of as the amount of particles, expresses in mass units or moles, that move through a unit area (1 m ) in a unit time (1 s) giving SI units of kg m s or mol m s. ... [Pg.59]

In the above expression, ci k is the concentration of species i in phase k, and si kj is the stoichiometric coefficient of species i in phase k participating in heterogeneous reaction 1 (see eq 8). is the specific surface area (surface area per unit total volume) of the interface between phases k and p. ih.k- is the normal interfacial current transferred per unit interfacial area across the interface between the electronically conducting phase and phase k due to electron-transfer reaction h, and it is positive in the anodic direction. In the above expression, Faraday s law... [Pg.451]

Note 1 Adhesive strength, if, SI unit Nm is the force required to separate one condensed phase domain from another at the interface between the two phase domains divided by the area of the interface. [Pg.191]

The conductance of an electrolyte solution characterizes the easiness of electric conduction its unit is reciprocal ohm, = siemens = S = A/V. The electric conductivity is proportional to the cross-section area and inversely proportional to the length of the conductor. The unit of conductivity is S/m. The conductivity of an electrol3de solution depends on the concentration of the ions. Molar conductivity, denoted as X, is when the concentration of the hypothetical ideal solution is 1 M = 1000 mol/m. Hence, the unit of molar conductivity is either Sm M , or using SI units, Sm mol . For nonideal solutions, X depends on concentration, and the value of X at infinite dilution is denoted by subscript "0" (such as >,+ 0, and X for cation and anion molar conductivity). The conductivity is a directly measurable property. The molar conductivity at infinite dilution may be related to the mobility as follows ... [Pg.301]

Pressure (of gaseous reactants, for example) Pressure units are derived using the formula Pressure=Force/Area. The SI units for force and area cire newtons (N) and square meters (m ), so the SI unit of pressure, the pascal (Pa), can be expressed as N/m. ... [Pg.24]

Pressure-sensitive adhesives are used in a great variety of applications, most commonly for adhesive tapes. In that case, they have to be tested by static shear test or dynamic shear test The difference between these two methods is that in static shear test a standard force is being applied to the test specimen and the adhesive failure is reported as the time it takes for failure to occur. The dynamic shear test involves a force being applied to the PSA tape at a specific rate of speed (typically 0.25 mm or 0.1 in. per minute). The value reported is as the peak force per unit area (Ib/in, also abbreviated as psi, and in SI units MPa) required to cause adhesive failure. The standards for adhesion shear tests are ASTM D3654, ISO EN 1943, and PSTC-107.i i ... [Pg.150]

This formula generalizes the conclusion reached in Tables 1.2 and 1.3. It shows clearly that for a fixed amount of material, the surface area is inversely proportional to the radius for uniform, spherical particles. At the same time, the formula reminds us that some lower limit for Rs must be imposed since the relationship is undefined for Rs = 0. If SI units were used consistently, Asp would be expressed in m2 kg-1 however, m2 g 1 are the most commonly used units for this quantity. In the event of nonuniform or nonspherical particles, alternate expressions for Equation (2) have to be used. The following example considers the case of cylindrical particles. [Pg.9]

Newton s law states that force = mass X acceleration. You also know that energy = force X distance and pressure = force/ area. From these relations, derive the dimensions of newtons, joules, and pascals in terms of the fundamental SI units in Table 1-1. Check your answers in Table 1-2. [Pg.18]

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