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** Approximate equations for transport fluxes in multicomponent mixtures **

** Multicomponent Transport in Porous Catalysts **

** Multicomponent fluids, transport processes **

** Multicomponent transport model **

Vol. 1 Polymer Engineering Vol. 2 Filtration Post-Treatment Processes Vol. 3 Multicomponent Diffusion Vol. 4 Transport in Porous Catalysts... [Pg.199]

In considering the effect of mass transfer on the boiling of a multicomponent mixture, both the boiling mechanism and the driving force for transport must be examined (17—20). Moreover, the process is strongly influenced by the effects of convective flow on the boundary layer. In Reference 20 both effects have been taken into consideration to obtain a general correlation based on mechanistic reasoning that fits all available data within 15%. [Pg.96]

Conducting Polymer Blends, Composites, and Colloids. Incorporation of conducting polymers into multicomponent systems allows the preparation of materials that are electroactive and also possess specific properties contributed by the other components. Dispersion of a conducting polymer into an insulating matrix can be accompHshed as either a miscible or phase-separated blend, a heterogeneous composite, or a coUoidaHy dispersed latex. When the conductor is present in sufftcientiy high composition, electron transport is possible. [Pg.39]

But there can be no question of chamber saturation if the TLC plate is then placed directly in the chamber. But at least there is a reduction in the evaporation of mobile phase components from the layer. Mobile phase components are simultaneously transported onto the layer (Fig. 57). In the case of multicomponent mobile phases this reduces the formation of / -fronts. [Pg.126]

Very little work has been done in this area. Even electrolyte transport has not been well characterized for multicomponent electrolyte systems. Multicomponent electrochemical transport theory [36] has not been applied to transport in lithium-ion electrolytes, even though these electrolytes consist of a blend of solvents. It is easy to imagine that ions are preferentially solvated and ion transport causes changes in solvent composition near the electrodes. Still, even the most sophisticated mathematical models [37] model transport as a binary salt. [Pg.561]

In order to design a zeoHte membrane-based process a good model description of the multicomponent mass transport properties is required. Moreover, this will reduce the amount of practical work required in the development of zeolite membranes and MRs. Concerning intracrystaUine mass transport, a decent continuum approach is available within a Maxwell-Stefan framework for mass transport [98-100]. The well-defined geometry of zeoHtes, however, gives rise to microscopic effects, like specific adsorption sites and nonisotropic diffusion, which become manifested at the macroscale. It remains challenging to incorporate these microscopic effects into a generalized model and to obtain an accurate multicomponent prediction of a real membrane. [Pg.231]

The task of the problem-independent chemistry software is to make evaluating the terms in Equations (6-10) as straightforward as possible. In this case subroutine calls to the Chemkin software are made to return values of p, Cp, and the and hk vectors. Also, subroutine calls are made to a Transport package to return the ordinary multicomponent diffusion matrices Dkj, the mixture viscosities p, the thermal conductivities A, and the thermal diffusion coefficients D. Once this is done, finite difference representations of the equations are evaluated, and the residuals returned to the boundary value solver. [Pg.348]

Diffusion of ions can be observed in multicomponent systems where concentration gradients can arise. In individnal melts, self-diffnsion of ions can be studied with the aid of radiotracers. Whereas the mobilities of ions are lower in melts, the diffusion coefficients are of the same order of magnitude as in aqueous solutions (i.e., about 10 cmVs). Thus, for melts the Nemst relation (4.6) is not applicable. This can be explained in terms of an appreciable contribntion of ion pairs to diffusional transport since these pairs are nncharged, they do not carry cnrrent, so that values of ionic mobility calculated from diffusion coefficients will be high. [Pg.133]

Hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between the sample molecules and the phospholipid bilayer membranes are thought to play a key role in the transport of such solute molecules. When dilute 2% phospholipid in alkane is used in the artificial membrane [25,556], the effect of hydrogen bonding and electrostatic effects may be underestimated. We thus explored the effects of higher phospholipid content in alkane solutions. Egg and soy lecithins were selected for this purpose, since multicomponent mixtures such as model 11.0 are very costly, even at levels of 2% wt/vol in dodecane. The costs of components in 74% wt/vol (see below) levels would have been prohibitive. [Pg.183]

The above iso-pH measurements are based on the 2% DOPC/dodecane system (model 1.0 over pH 3-10 range). Another membrane model was also explored by us. Table 7.16 lists iso-pH effective permeability measurements using the soy lecithin (20% wt/vol in dodecane) membrane PAMPA (models 17.1, 24.1, and 25.1) The negative membrane charge, the multicomponent phospholipid mixture, and the acceptor sink condition (Table 7.1) result in different intrinsic permeabilities for the probe molecules. Figure 7.40 shows the relationship between the 2% DOPC and the 20% soy iso-pH PAMPA systems for ketoprofen. Since the intrinsic permeability of ketoprofen in the soy lecithin membrane is about 20 times greater than in DOPC membrane, the flat diffusion-limited transport region of the log Pe... [Pg.209]

Control of nutrient transport dictates significant coupling between transported components in G1 epithelia. This complicates solute transport analysis by requiring a multicomponent description. Flux equations written for each component constitute a nonlinear system in which the coupling nonlinearities are embodied in the coefficients modifying individual transport contributions to flux. [Pg.188]

Wu Y.S., Zhang K., et al. An efficient parallel-computing scheme for modeling noni-sothermal multiphase flow and multicomponent transport in porous and fractured media. 2002 Advances in Water Resources 25 243-261. [Pg.174]

Chemical mass is redistributed within a groundwater flow regime as a result of three principal transport processes advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and molecular diffusion (e.g., Bear, 1972 Freeze and Cherry, 1979). Collectively, they are referred to as mass transport. The nature of these processes and how each can be accommodated within a transport model for a multicomponent chemical system are described in the following sections. [Pg.287]

A reactive transport model in a more general sense treats a multicomponent system in which a number of equilibrium and perhaps kinetic reactions occur at the same time. This problem requires more specialized solution techniques, a variety of which have been proposed and implemented (e.g., Yeh and Tripathi, 1989 Steefel and MacQuarrie, 1996). Of the techniques, the operator splitting method is best known and most commonly used. [Pg.306]

Cederberg, G. A., R. L. Street and J. O. Leckie, 1985, A groundwater mass transport and equilibrium chemistry model for multicomponent systems. Water Resources Research 21, 1095-1104. [Pg.513]

Lichtner, P. C., 1996, Continuum formulation of multicomponent-multiphase reactive transport. Reviews in Mineralogy 34, 1-81. [Pg.522]

Steefel, C. I., 2001, Gimrt, Version 1.2 Software for modeling multicomponent, multidimensional reactive transport, User s Guide. Report UCRL-MA-143182, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. [Pg.530]

Steefel, C.I. and S.B. Yabusaki, 1996, Os3d/GIMRT, Software for multicomponent-multidimensional reactive transport User s Manual and Programmer s Guide. Report PNL-11166, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. [Pg.530]

Yabusaki, S. B., C. I. Steefel and B. D. Wood, 1998, Multidimensional, multicomponent subsurface reactive transport in non-uniform velocity fields code verification using an advective reactive streamtube approach. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 30,299-331. [Pg.534]

Parkhurst, D., Kipp, K., Engesgaard, P., Charlton, S. 2004. PHAST - A program for simulating ground-water flow, solute transport, and multicomponent geochemical reactions. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A8. [Pg.273]

** Approximate equations for transport fluxes in multicomponent mixtures **

** Multicomponent Transport in Porous Catalysts **

** Multicomponent fluids, transport processes **

** Multicomponent transport model **

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