The momentum balance is a version of Newton s Second Law of mechanics, which students first encounter in introductory physics as F = mo, with F the force, m the mass, and a the acceleration. For an element of fluid the force becomes the stress tensor acting on the fluid, and the resulting equations are called the Navier-Stokes equations. [Pg.331]

We next have to consider the continuity equation, which students first encounter seriously in introductory chemistry and physics as the principle of mass conservation. For any fluid we require that the total mass flow into some element of volume minus the flow out is equal to the accumulation of mass, and we either write these as integral balances (stoichiometry) or as differential balances on a differential element of volume. [Pg.331]

When we assume a steady-state constant-density reactor, we obtain the simple form of this equation (V. pu = 0 or pu constant), which is just total mass conservation as required from stoichiometry. [Pg.331]

These equations apply to the total mass or mass density of the system, while we use moles when describing chemical reaction. Therefore, whenever we need to solve these equations simultaneously, we must transform our species mass balances into weight fraction when including momentum and total mass-balance equations. [Pg.331]

The equations developed in Chapters 11 and 12 are quite complicated and in many practical applications it may be desirable to replace them by simpler approximate equations. The construction of such approximations, of adequate accuracy, is a field still largely unexplored. Nevertheless, it is important to understand the structure of the complete equations if approximations are to be made deliberately, rather than by inadvertent omission. [Pg.5]

In the few two- and three-dimensional cases that pemiit exact solution of the Schroedinger equation, the complete equation is separated into one equation in each dimension and the energy of the system is obtained by solving the separated equations and summing the eigenvalues. The wave function of the system is the product of the wave functions obtained for the separated equations. [Pg.172]

Prater (1958) has shown that without solving the complete equation the temperature increase can be related to the concentration drop inside the particle as ... [Pg.27]

Again, first E is calculated without taking the term with em into account. The resulting estimate of EA is used to evaluate the said term and then the calculation of EA is improved by solving the complete equation (48). Since kA is not involved in this treatment, the resulting value of EA can be used in principle for an estimate of kA from Eq. (47), for example by revers-... [Pg.379]

These models are designed to define the complex entrance effects and convection phenomena that occur in a reactor and solve the complete equations of heat, mass balance, and momentum. They can be used to optimize the design parameters of a CVD reactor such as susceptor geometry, tilt angle, flow rates, and others. To obtain a complete and thorough analysis, these models should be complemented with experimental observations, such as the flow patterns mentioned above and in situ diagnostic, such as laser Raman spectroscopy. [Pg.55]

Ans. You cannot write a complete equation for an unbalanced net ionic equation. [In part (a), for example, you might have one nitrate ion on the left and two on the right.] The complete equation for the balanced net ionic equation might be... [Pg.162]

At high anodic potentials Prussian blue converts to its fully oxidized form as is clearly seen in cyclic voltammograms due to the presence of the corresponding set of peaks (Fig. 13.2). The fully oxidized redox state is denoted as Berlin green or in some cases as Prussian yellow . Since the presence of alkali metal ions is doubtful in the Prussian blue redox state, the most probable mechanism for charge compensation in Berlin green/Prussian blue redox activity is the entrapment of anions in the course of oxidative reaction. The complete equation is ... [Pg.438]

The solution to the homogeneous equation being e 1, we can write the solution u(t) to the complete equation as... [Pg.370]

Analyzing Information Write the complete equation for the double-replacement reaction that occurred when NaCl and AgN03 were mixed in wells A1 and A2 in step 2. Write the net ionic equation. [Pg.71]

At all but very high temperatures it is necessary to employ the complete equation because the vibrational frequencies for all these molecules are quite high. (Notice at room temperature u(H2) 21, and u(HI) 11). Harmonic oscillator rigid rotor calculated equilibrium constants are shown in Fig. 4.4. As expected the low temperature limiting value, while bounded, is significantly different from unity. At extremely high temperature Equation 4.95 applies and the isotope exchange constant is... [Pg.116]

For historic and practical reasons hydrogen isotope effects are usually considered separately from heavy-atom isotope effects (i.e. 160/180, 160/170, etc.). The historic reason stems from the fact that prior to the mid-sixties analysis using the complete equation to describe isotope effects via computer calculations was impossible in most laboratories and it was necessary to employ various approximations. For H/D isotope effects the basic equation KIE = MMI x EXC x ZPE (see Equations 4.146 and 4.147) was often drastically simplified (with varying success) to KIE ZPE because of the dominant role of the zero point energy term. However that simplification is not possible when the relative contributions from MMI (mass moment of inertia) and EXC (excitation) become important, as they are for heavy atom isotope effects. This is because the isotope sensitive vibrational frequency differences are smaller for heavy atom than for H/D substitution. Presently... [Pg.319]

Then it became apparent that certain physical principles could be used to simplify the complete equations so they could be solved relatively easily. Such a simplification was first carried out by von Karman and Penner [9], Their approach was considered one of the more significant advances in laminar flame propagation, but it could not have been developed and verified if it were not for the extensive work of Hirschfelder and his collaborators. The major simplification that von Karman and Penner introduced is the fact that the eigenvalue solution of the equations is the same for all ignition temperatures, whether it be near T or not. More recently, asymptotic analyses have been developed that provide formulas with greater accuracy and further clarification of the wave structure. These developments are described in detail in three books [10-12],... [Pg.155]

At some point in most processes, a detailed model of performance is needed to evaluate the effects of changing feedstocks, added capacity needs, changing costs of materials and operations, etc. For this, we need to solve the complete equations with detailed chemistry and reactor flow patterns. This is a problem of solving the R simultaneous equations for S chemical species, as we have discussed. However, the real process is seldom isothermal, and the flow pattern involves partial mixing. Therefore, in formulating a complete simulation, we need to add many additional complexities to the ideas developed thus far. We will consider each of these complexities in successive chapters temperature variations in Chapters 5 and 6, catalytic processes in Chapter 7, and nonideal flow patterns in Chapter 8. In Chapter 8 we will return to the issue of detailed modeling of chemical reactors, which include all these effects. [Pg.181]

Thus far we have only considered the PFTR with gradients in the axial direction. The heat transfer to the wall at temperature Tj, was handled through a heat transfer coefficient U. The complete equations are... [Pg.238]

The solid could also be withdrawn and returned to the reactor using a cyclone, and in this case (still assuming complete mixing) the complete equations for the solid phase will have to be solved because T is finite. [Pg.505]

The GUM approach described here has the advantage that each uncertainty component is designed to have the properties of a standard deviation, and so the rules for combining standard deviations of the normal distribution can be followed. The complete equation will be given, but it may be simplified to useable equations for the majority of applications. [Pg.187]

Perhaps even more important is the effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the emf of a half-reaction of a particular species. Consider the permanganate ion as an oxidizing agent in acid solution (as it often is). From the Latimer diagram above we can readily see that the reduction emf is 1.51 V when all species have unit activity. What is not shown is the complete equation ... [Pg.307]

In order to develop an intuition for the theory of flames it is helpful to be able to obtain analytical solutions to the flame equations. With such solutions, it is possible to show trends in the behavior of flame velocity and the profiles when activation energy, flame temperature, diffusion coefficients, or other parameters are varied. This is possible if one simplifies the kinetics so that an exact solution of the equation is obtained or if an approximate solution to the complete equations is determined. In recent years Boys and Corner (B4), Adams (Al), Wilde (W5), von K rman and Penner (V3), Spalding (S4), Hirschfelder (H2), de Sendagorta (Dl), and Rosen (Rl) have developed methods for approximating the solution to a single reaction flame. The approximations are usually based on the simplification of the set of two equations [(4) and (5)] into one equation by setting all of the diffusion coefficients equal to X/cpp. In this model, Xi becomes a linear function of temperature (the constant enthalpy case), and the following equation is obtained ... [Pg.10]

The reaction is really an extension of that on alkaline reduction, since the solution of sodium sulphide in water is alkaline. The complete equations are ... [Pg.364]

The workfunction w is a spectrometer constant and represents mainly the work necessary to excite the electron from the Fermi-level to the free electron level. Bearing in mind the experimental set-up, where EK = EK> is the constant analyzer energy, the complete equation reads... [Pg.9]

Note that the generating function in Eq. (33) without the tilde is the same as that given by Eq. (12) when x=l. The complete equation at Eq, (33) also becomes Eq. (13) when x=l,but it is difficult to solve analytically for any x. The moments of the distribution, however, can be calculated numerically as functions of time since... [Pg.145]

Since 2x and 2z are necessarily even numbers, we see that y must also be even let us guess y = 2. The three equations then give w = 4, z = 8, and =11. The complete equation then is... [Pg.29]

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