Although the teclmiques described undoubtedly provide valuable results on various materials, the most useful infonuation almost always comes from a combination of several (chemical and physical) surface characterization techniques. Table B1.25.1 gives a short overview of the techniques described in this chapter. [Pg.1851]

Swanson L W and Davis P R 1985 Work function measurements Solid State Physics Surfaces(Methods of Experimental Physics 22) cd R L Park and M G Lagally (New York Academic) chi... [Pg.1898]

Flotation is a physical process involving relative interaction of three phases solid, water, and air. An understanding of the wettability of the solid surface, physical surface, and chemical phenomena by which the flotation reagents act and the mechanical factors that determine particle-bubble attachment and removal of particle-laden bubbles, is helpful in designing and operating flotation systems successfully. [Pg.1810]

The steady state rates of hydrocarbon synthesis over the carbided iron surface are given in Table I. The reaction rates have been normalized to the physical surface area of the starting iron powder [18 M /g] and are reported in molecules/cm sec. A turnover... [Pg.127]

As was pointed out earlier, the determination of the elevation of points of the physical surface of the earth with respect to the geoid is the only the first step in studying the shape of the earth. The next step is the calculation of the distance between corresponding points of the ellipsoid of rotation and the geoid, and this subject will be described in the following section. [Pg.116]

We assume that with the help of leveling we solved our first problem and found the separation between the geoid and the points of the physical surface of the earth. Our next step is to determine the position of the geoid with respect to the reference ellipsoid. The solution of this fundamental problem was given by Stokes. To begin,... [Pg.120]

In the previous section we described the Stokes method, which allows us to find the distance between the reference ellipsoid and the physical surface of the earth. The ellipsoid, given by its semi-major axis a, flattening a, and elements of orientation inside of the earth can be considered as the first approximation to a figure of the earth. In order to perform the transition to the real earth we have to know the distance along the normal from each point of the spheroid to the physical surface of the earth. Earlier we demonstrated that this problem includes two steps, namely,... [Pg.128]

Here H are geodetic coordinates of the point on the physical surface of the... [Pg.130]

Later we will assume that the difference Wq— Uq is equal to zero. In this equation N is the height of the quasi-geoid, BiB. It also defines an excess of the level surface of the potential W, passing through the point A of the physical surface of the earth over corresponding level surface of the normal potential passing through the point Ai. Let us represent Equation (2.293) in the form... [Pg.132]

Thus, the determination of heights of the quasi-geoid N requires knowledge of the disturbing potential T on the physical surface of the earth. As in the case of the Stokes problem, in order to calculate N we have to determine the disturbing potential, which obeys some boundary condition on the physical surface of the earth instead of the surface of a geoid. This is the main advantage of a new approach. [Pg.132]

Performing a transition from the physical surface of the earth to the surface S... [Pg.133]

Here g is the gravitational field on the physical surface of the earth, y the normal field on the surface S. At the same time, dT/dv and dy/dv have the same values along line V at both surfaces. This is the boundary condition for the disturbing potential and therefore we have to find the harmonic function regular at infinity and satisfying Equation (2.301) on the surface S. In this case, the physical surface of the earth is represented by S formed by normal heights, plotted from the reference ellipsoid. In other words, by leveling the position of the surface S becomes known. [Pg.133]

Physical surface modifications Adsorption is probably the simplest way to change the EOF on purpose by using appropriate additives. EOF modification by adsorption can be used on both uncoated and coated capillaries. The surface of uncoated fused silica... [Pg.392]

Karl Franzens University Graz Institute of Physics, Surface and Interface Physics 8010 Graz Austria... [Pg.260]

With over 1300 bibliographic citation, figures, tables, and equations. Physical Characterization of Pharmaceutical Solids is an incomparable resource for industrial and product development pharmacists and pharmaceutical scientist spectrosoopials physical, surface, and colloid chemists and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines. [Pg.425]

Sverjensky, D. A., 1993, Physical surface-complexation models for sorption at the mineral-water interface. Nature 364, 776-780. [Pg.531]

Cyclic voltammograms of PtSn microelectrodes in 0.5 M sulfuric acid solution are shown in Fig. 15.6. The potential range was -200 to 800 mV (vs. SCE) and the scan rate was 100 mV/s. It can be seen clearly that hydrogen desorption from the PtSn-2 electrode is seriously inhibited compared with that from the PtSn-1 electrode. From the hydrogen desorption peak areas in the CV curves and the Pt single crystallite hydrogen desorption constant of 210 /xC/cm Pt, the electrochemical surface areas (ESA) for PtSn-1 and PtSn-2 were calculated to be 391 and 49 cm /mg, respectively. However, it is evident from XRD and TEM results that the two catalysts have similar particle size and so they should possess the similar physical surface area. The difference... [Pg.318]

From the above experimental results, it can be seen that the both PtSn catalysts have a similar particle size leading to the same physical surface area. However, the ESAs of these catalysts are significantly different, as indicated by the CV curves. The large difference between ESA values for the two catalysts could only be explained by differences in detailed nanostructure as a consequence of differences in the preparation of the respective catalyst. On the basis of the preparation process and the CV measurement results, a model has been developed for the structures of these PtSn catalysts as shown in Fig. 15.10. The PtSn-1 catalyst is believed to have a Sn core/Pt shell nanostructure while PtSn-2 is believed to have a Pt core/Sn shell structure. Both electrochemical results and fuel cell performance indicate that PtSn-1 catalyst significantly enhances ethanol electrooxidation. Our previous research found that an important difference between PtRu and PtSn catalysts is that the addition of Ru reduces the lattice parameter of Pt, while Sn dilates the lattice parameter. The reduced Pt lattice parameter resulting from Ru addition seems to be unfavorable for ethanol adsorption and degrades the DEFC performance. In this new work on PtSn catalysts with more... [Pg.321]

However, as we saw in section 3.3 for platinum on YSZ, the fact that i—rj data fits a Butler—Volmer expression does not necessarily indicate that the electrode is limited by interfacial electrochemical kinetics. Supporting this point is a series of papers published by Svensson et al., who modeled the current—overpotential i—rj) characteristics of porous mixed-conducting electrodes. As shown in Figure 28a, these models take a similar mechanistic approach as the Adler model but consider additional physics (surface adsorption and transport) and forego time dependence (required to predict impedance) in order to solve for the full nonlinear i—rj characteristics at steady state. [Pg.573]

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