Note that the worse this law fits the real conditions the larger is the number of steps (and intermediate substances ) that must be introduced to describe a reaction. It is possible to describe the rate of an elementary reaction in terms of the other kinetic law. An important generalization for the law of mass action (acting surfaces) is the Marcelin-de Donder kinetics [14]. According to this law, every substance A is described by a certain function of concentration, the activity a (c). Then the rate of reaction [Pg.110]

This limitation is adequate to the fact that the rate of substance consumption is zero when this substance is absent. [Pg.110]

The law of mass action is a traditional base for modelling chemical reaction kinetics, but its direct application is restricted to ideal systems and isothermal conditions. More general is the Marceline-de Donder kinetics examined by Feinberg [15], but this also is not always sufficient. Let us give the most general of the reasonable forms of kinetic law matched to thermodynamics. The rate of the reversible reaction eqn. (5) is [Pg.110]

Conditions (66) and (67) ensure the existence of Lyapunov s convex function for eqns. (17) GGjdNi = fit. With a known type of the potentials /i, for which condition (1) is fulfilled, one can obtain Lyapunov s thermodynamic functions for various (including non-isothermal) conditions. Thus, for an ideal gas and the law of mass action [16] [Pg.111]

However, in the study of thermodynamics and transport phenomena, the behavior of ideal gases and gas mixtures has historically provided a norm against which their more unruly brethren could be measured, and a signpost to the systematic treatment of departures from ideality. In view of the complexity of transport phenomena in multicomponent mixtures a thorough understanding of the behavior of ideal mixtures is certainly a prerequisite for any progress in understanding non-ideal systems. [Pg.2]

Commercial computer services are available to do rigorous distillation calculations. Perhaps the licensor will provide copies of rigorous computer runs to validate his balances. Alternately, the operating company can make such runs. For highly non-ideal systems, literature data for binary pairs may have to be sought. In some cases, laboratory equilibrium data may have to be obtained in-house or contracted out to one of several organizations or universities that are in this business. [Pg.218]

The f, fg, f, and fp are determined for the pure gas at the pressure of the mixture and depend on the pressure and the temperature. In gaseous mixtures, the quantity Kp as defined by Equation 2-38 is used. Eor an ideal gas reaetion mixture, Kf = Kp. Eor a non-ideal system. Equation 2-39 ean be used to ealeulate Kp from the measured equilibrium eompositions Ky using Equation 2-42. The eomposition... [Pg.66]

Theoretieal predietion of the solubility in non-ideal systems (whieh are the most eommon) is not yet reliable, however, thus resort is eommonly made to empiri-eal expressions e.g. of the form... [Pg.60]

The heart of the question of non-ideality deals with the determination of the distribution of the respective system components between the liquid and gaseous phases. The concepts of fugacity and activity are fundamental to the interpretation of the non-ideal systems. For a pure ideal gas the fugacity is equal to the pressure, and for a component, i, in a mixture of ideal gases it is equal to its partial pressure yjP, where P is the system pressure. As the system pressure approaches zero, the fugacity approaches ideal. For many systems the deviations from unity are minor at system pressures less than 25 psig. [Pg.5]

Equilibrium Basic Consideration, 1 Ideal Systems, 2 K-Factor Hydrocarbon Equilibrium Charts, 4 Non-Ideal Systems, 5 Example 8-1 Raoult s Law, 14 Binary System Material Balance Constant Molal Overflow Tray to Tray,... [Pg.497]

Featherstone, W. (1973) Proc. Tech. Int. 18 (April/May), 185. Non-ideal systems — A rapid method of estimating still requirements. [Pg.625]

Chen, B., and Kwauk, M., Generalized Fluidization of Non-Ideal Systems, Proc. First Intern. Conf. Circulating Fluidized Bed, 127-132, Halifax, Canada (1985)... [Pg.578]

These mixing rules were applied to perform critical-point calculations and the critical behaviour of some highly non-ideal systems [47, 48],... [Pg.46]

Rate constants and reaction mechanisms for non-ideal systems (the Mar-celin-de Donder kinetic law) are subject to the same limitations. For them eqns. (69)-(71) include at(c ) instead of c the remaining equations and all the reasoning are the same [28]. [Pg.120]

Hence, in addition to the systems without intermediate interactions, the conditions for the existence of a PCB account for one more class of mechanisms that always have an unique and stable steady state. In conclusion, let us emphasize that, on the basis of the Rozonoer approach [55, 56], Orlov has recently extended the Horn and Jackson results to the non-ideal systems of a rather general type having a PCB [57, 58],... [Pg.177]

For k>kf the adspecies mass transfer process is described by the diffusion Eq. (63). If the species migration in the subsurface region and the exchange with the gaseous phase occur fast, then k — l, therefore the boundary condition comprises the 3rd kind condition. Otherwise, it would be necessary to take into account the temporal evolution of the species in subsurface layers k , and the kinetic equations for these layers can contain the time derivatives. Most works devoted to mass transfer problems and also to the surface segregation of the alloy components [155,173]. The boundary conditions in the non-ideal systems are discussed in Ref. [174]. They require the use of equations for the pair functions of the type d(6,Jkq)/dx — 0. When describing the interphase boundary motion, the 3rd kind boundary conditions are also possible, although the 1st and the 2nd kind conditions are used more often. The latter are mainly applied to the description of many problems with species redistribution in the closed volume [175],... [Pg.414]

A more rigorous approach to calculating the diffusion coefficients has been adopted by Kikuchi [165], A binary substitution alloy (s = 3) has been considered with the vacancy mechanism of atom migration. He was the first to take account of the temporal correlations and to obtain expressions for the correlation cofactor fc in the non-ideal systems. The derived coefficients satisfy Onsager s reciprocal relations. [Pg.414]

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See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.762 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.5 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.79 ]

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