The corresponding collision frequency is defined as the average number of collisions per unit time experienced by any one molecule of type 1 [Pg.334]

The mean time between successive collisions of molecules of type 1, called the collision time ri, is approximated by [Pg.335]

The mean free path, l, traveled by a molecule of type Wi between successive collisions in a given time t is found by dividing the total distance traveled by all molecules of type mi in this time by the total number of the collisions between them [Pg.335]

From this formula it is seen that to calculate h we need to determine the mean molecular speed ( ci )a/- For real systems the average molecular speed is difficult to determine. Assuming that the system is sufficiently close to equilibrium the velocity distribution may be taken to be Maxwellian. For molecules in the absolute Maxwellian state the peculiar velocity equals the microscopic molecular velocity, i.e.. Cl = Cl, because the macroscopic velocity is zero vi = 0, hence it follows that the speed of the microscopic molecular velocity equals the thermal speed C )m = ( Ci )m = c )m = ( ci )m- [Pg.335]

The fact that the molecules move at different velocities allows for the conclusion that they will move within a specific unit of time over a different distance (free path) before colliding with another particle. The mean free path X, resulting from the kinetic gas theory is [Pg.5]

Since the particle number density, as already derived, depends on the pressure, also the mean free path of the gas molecules is pressure dependent (at constant temperature), the product of the prevailing pressure and the mean free path is, at a given temperature, a constant (gas-type dependent). [Pg.5]

For nitrogen at 20 C, this product amounts to X / = 6.5 10 mbar, that is at a prevailing pressure ofp= lx 10 mbar there results at a temperature of 20 °C a mean free path of 6.5 mm [4]. [Pg.5]

Moreover, kinetic gas theory states the distribution of the mean free paths as [Pg.5]

From this equation, it can be derived that 63% of all collisions occur after a path of 0 c X whereas 37% of the collisions occur after a path of X . 5X. [Pg.5]

Seah M P and Dench W A 1979 Quantitative electron spectroscopy of surfaces a standard data base for electron inelastic mean free paths in solids Surf, interface Anai. 1 2... [Pg.318]

We are now going to use this distribution fiinction, together with some elementary notions from mechanics and probability theory, to calculate some properties of a dilute gas in equilibrium. We will calculate tire pressure that the gas exerts on the walls of the container as well as the rate of eflfiision of particles from a very small hole in the wall of the container. As a last example, we will calculate the mean free path of a molecule between collisions with other molecules in the gas. [Pg.667]

The average time between collisions is then v and in this time tlie particle will typically travel a distance X, the mean free path, where... [Pg.670]

This is the desired result. It shows that the mean free path is mversely proportional to the density and the collision cross section. This is a physically sensible result, and could have been obtained by dimensional... [Pg.670]

A3.1.2.2 THE MEAN FREE PATH EXPRESSIONS FOR TRANSPORT COEFFICIENTS... [Pg.671]

One of the most usefiil applications of the mean free path concept occurs in the theory of transport processes in systems where there exist gradients of average but local density, local temperature, and/or local velocity. The existence of such gradients causes a transfer of particles, energy or momentum, respectively, from one region of the system to another. [Pg.671]

If these assumptions are satisfied then the ideas developed earlier about the mean free path can be used to provide qualitative but useful estimates of the transport properties of a dilute gas. While many varied and complicated processes can take place in fluid systems, such as turbulent flow, pattern fonnation, and so on, the principles on which these flows are analysed are remarkably simple. The description of both simple and complicated flows m fluids is based on five hydrodynamic equations, die Navier-Stokes equations. These equations, in trim, are based upon the mechanical laws of conservation of particles, momentum and energy in a fluid, together with a set of phenomenological equations, such as Fourier s law of themial conduction and Newton s law of fluid friction. When these phenomenological laws are used in combination with the conservation equations, one obtains the Navier-Stokes equations. Our goal here is to derive the phenomenological laws from elementary mean free path considerations, and to obtain estimates of the associated transport coefficients. Flere we will consider themial conduction and viscous flow as examples. [Pg.671]

Next we consider the computation of the loss tenn, p - As in the calculation of the mean free path, we need... [Pg.678]

We now compute r by noting again the steps involved in calculating the mean free path, but applying them now to the derivation of an expression for r -... [Pg.678]

If we wish to know the number of (VpV)-collisions that actually take place in this small time interval, we need to know exactly where each particle is located and then follow the motion of all the particles from time tto time t+ bt. In fact, this is what is done in computer simulated molecular dynamics. We wish to avoid this exact specification of the particle trajectories, and instead carry out a plausible argument for the computation of r To do this, Boltzmann made the following assumption, called the Stosszahlansatz, which we encountered already in the calculation of the mean free path ... [Pg.678]

We consider the motion of a large particle in a fluid composed of lighter, smaller particles. We also suppose that the mean free path of the particles in the fluid, X, is much smaller than a characteristic size, R, of the large particle. The analysis of the motion of the large particle is based upon a method due to Langevin. Consider the equation of motion of the large particle. We write it in the fonn... [Pg.687]

Persson M, Wiizen L and Andersson S 1990 Mean free path of a trapped physisorbed hydrogen moiecuie Phys. Rev. B 42 5331... [Pg.916]

Such ideal low mean free paths are the basis of FEED, the teclmique that has been used most for detennining surface structures on the atomic scale. This is also the case of photoelectron diffraction (PD) here, the mean free path of the emitted electrons restricts sensitivity to a similar depdi (actually double the depth of FEED, since the incident x-rays in PD are only weakly adenuated on this scale). [Pg.1755]

As we have seen, the electron is the easiest probe to make surface sensitive. For that reason, a number of hybrid teclmiques have been designed that combine the virtues of electrons and of other probes. In particular, electrons and photons (x-rays) have been used together in teclmiques like PD [10] and SEXAFS (or EXAFS, which is the high-energy limit of XAES) [2, Hj. Both of these rely on diffraction by electrons, which have been excited by photons. In the case of PD, the electrons themselves are detected after emission out of the surface, limiting the depth of sampling to that given by the electron mean free path. [Pg.1756]

Because a set of binding energies is characteristic for an element, XPS can analyse chemical composition. Almost all photoelectrons used in laboratory XPS have kinetic energies in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 keV, and probe the outer layers of tire sample. The mean free path of electrons in elemental solids depends on the kinetic energy. Optimum surface sensitivity is achieved with electrons at kinetic energies of 50-250 eV, where about 50% of the electrons come from the outennost layer. [Pg.1854]

A more accurate calculation will account for differences in the energy dependent mean free paths of the elements and for the transmission characteristics of the electron analyser (see [7]). [Pg.1855]

The strong point of AES is that it provides a quick measurement of elements in the surface region of conducting samples. For elements having Auger electrons with energies hr the range of 100-300 eV where the mean free path of the electrons is close to its minimum, AES is considerably more surface sensitive than XPS. [Pg.1859]

electron mean free path in small silver particles Z. Physik 224 307... [Pg.2922]

At the present time there exist no flux relations wich a completely sound cheoretical basis, capable of describing transport in porous media over the whole range of pressures or pore sizes. All involve empiricism to a greater or less degree, or are based on a physically unrealistic representation of the structure of the porous medium. Existing models fall into two main classes in the first the medium is modeled as a network of interconnected capillaries, while in the second it is represented by an assembly of stationary obstacles dispersed in the gas on a molecular scale. The first type of model is closely related to the physical structure of the medium, but its development is hampered by the lack of a solution to the problem of transport in a capillary whose diameter is comparable to mean free path lengths in the gas mixture. The second type of model is more tenuously related to the real medium but more tractable theoretically. [Pg.3]

When Che diameter of the Cube is small compared with molecular mean free path lengths in che gas mixture at Che pressure and temperature of interest, molecule-wall collisions are much more frequent Chan molecule-molecule collisions, and the partial pressure gradient of each species is entirely determined by momentum transfer to Che wall by mechanism (i). As shown by Knudsen [3] it is not difficult to estimate the rate of momentum transfer in this case, and hence deduce the flux relations. [Pg.8]

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