The theoretical treatments of Section III-2B have been used to calculate interfacial tensions of solutions using suitable interaction potential functions. Thus Gubbins and co-workers [88] report a molecular dynamics calculation of the surface tension of a solution of A and B molecules obeying Eq. III-46 with o,bb/ o,aa = 0.4 and... [Pg.67]

The gradient model for interfacial tension described in Eqs. III-42 and III-43 is limited to interaction potentials that decay more rapidly than r. Thus it can be applied to the Lennard-Jones potential but not to a longer range interaction such as dipole-dipole interaction. Where does this limitation come from, and what does it imply for interfacial tensions of various liquids ... [Pg.92]

We have two interaction potential energies between uncharged molecules that vary with distance to the minus sixth power as found in the Lennard-Jones potential. Thus far, none of these interactions accounts for the general attraction between atoms and molecules that are neither charged nor possess a dipole moment. After all, CO and Nj are similarly sized, and have roughly comparable heats of vaporization and hence molecular attraction, although only the former has a dipole moment. [Pg.228]

Fig. VI-5. The effect of electrolyte concentration on the interaction potential energy between two spheres where K is k in cm". (From Ref. 44.)... |

In the second picture, an interfacial layer or region persists over several molecular diameters due to a more slowly decaying interaction potential with the solid (note Section X-7C). This situation would then be more like the physical adsorption of vapors (see Chapter XVII), which become multilayer near the saturation vapor pressure (e.g.. Fig. X-15). Adsorption from solution, from this point of view, corresponds to a partition between bulk and interfacial phases here the Polanyi potential concept may be used (see Sections X-7C, XI-1 A, and XVII-7). [Pg.390]

Some studies have been made of W/O emulsions the droplets are now aqueous and positively charged [40,41 ]. Albers and Overbeek [40] carried out calculations of the interaction potential not just between two particles or droplets but between one and all nearest neighbors, thus obtaining the variation with particle density or

The feature that distinguishes intemrolecular interaction potentials from intramolecular ones is their relative strengtii. Most typical single bonds have a dissociation energy in the 150-500 kJ mol range but the strengdi of the interactions between small molecules, as characterized by the well depth, is in the 1-25 kJ mor range. [Pg.185]

There are many large molecules whose mteractions we have little hope of detemiining in detail. In these cases we turn to models based on simple mathematical representations of the interaction potential with empirically detemiined parameters. Even for smaller molecules where a detailed interaction potential has been obtained by an ab initio calculation or by a numerical inversion of experimental data, it is usefid to fit the calculated points to a functional fomi which then serves as a computationally inexpensive interpolation and extrapolation tool for use in fiirtlier work such as molecular simulation studies or predictive scattering computations. There are a very large number of such models in use, and only a small sample is considered here. The most frequently used simple spherical models are described in section Al.5.5.1 and some of the more common elaborate models are discussed in section A 1.5.5.2. section Al.5.5.3 and section Al.5.5.4. [Pg.204]

A more natural way to account for the anisotropy is to treat tire parairreters in an interatomic potential, such as equation (A 1.5.64). as fiurctioirs of the relative orientation of the interacting molecules. Comer [131] was perhaps the first to use such an approach. Pack [132] pointed out that Legendre expansions of the well depth e and equilibrium location of the interaction potential converge more rapidly tirair Legendre expansions of the potential itself... [Pg.208]

Thakkar A J and Smith V H Jr 1974 On a representation of the long range interatomic interaction potential J. Phys. B At. Moi. Phys. 7 L321... [Pg.212]

When an atom or molecule approaches a surface, it feels an attractive force. The interaction potential between the atom or molecule and the surface, which depends on the distance between the molecule and the surface and on the lateral position above the surface, detemiines the strength of this force. The incoming molecule feels this potential, and upon adsorption becomes trapped near the minimum m the well. Often the molecule has to overcome an activation barrier, before adsorption can occur. [Pg.295]

Themiodynamic stability requires a repulsive core m the interatomic potential of atoms and molecules, which is a manifestation of the Pauli exclusion principle operating at short distances. This means that the Coulomb and dipole interaction potentials between charged and uncharged real atoms or molecules must be supplemented by a hard core or other repulsive interactions. Examples are as follows. [Pg.439]

McMillan-Mayer theory of solutions [1,2], which essentially seeks to partition the interaction potential into tln-ee parts that due to the interaction between the solvent molecules themselves, that due to die interaction between the solvent and the solute and that due to the interaction between the solute molecules dispersed within the solvent. The main difference from the dilute fluid results presented above is that the potential energy u(r.p is replaced by the potential of mean force W(rp for two particles and, for particles of solute in the solvent, by the expression... [Pg.564]

The reason for this enliancement is intuitively obvious once the two reactants have met, they temporarily are trapped in a connnon solvent shell and fomi a short-lived so-called encounter complex. During the lifetime of the encounter complex they can undergo multiple collisions, which give them a much bigger chance to react before they separate again, than in the gas phase. So this effect is due to the microscopic solvent structure in the vicinity of the reactant pair. Its description in the framework of equilibrium statistical mechanics requires the specification of an appropriate interaction potential. [Pg.835]

surface interaction potential is not infinitely hard (cf figure A3,9,2. As E increases, the projectile can penetrate deeper into the surface, so that at its turning point (where it momentarily stops before reversing direction to return to the gas phase), an energetic projectile interacts with fewer surface atoms, thus making the effective cube mass smaller. Thus, we expect bE/E to increase with E (and also with W since the well accelerates the projectile towards the surface). [Pg.902]

A number of improvements to the Bom approximation are possible, including higher order Born approximations (obtained by inserting lower order approximations to i jJ into equation (A3.11.40). then the result into (A3.11.41) and (A3.11.42)), and the distorted wave Bom approximation (obtained by replacing the free particle approximation for the solution to a Sclirodinger equation that includes part of the interaction potential). For chemical physics... [Pg.968]

The present derivation can easily be generalized to systems with an arbitrary number of internal degrees of freedom, and it leads to coupled channel equations identical with equation (A3.11.63). where the coupling temis (A3.11.62) are expressed as matrix elements of the interaction potential using states which depend on these internal degrees of... [Pg.973]

Jarvis S P, Durig U, Lantz M A, Yamada H and Tokumoto H 1998 Feedback stabilized force-sensors a gateway to the direct measurement of interaction potentials Appl. Phys. A 66 S211... [Pg.1724]

Direct measurement of the interaction potential between tethered ligand (biotin) and receptor (streptavidin) have been reported by Wong et al [16] and demonstrate the possibility of controlling range and dynamics of specific biologic interactions via a flexible PEG-tether. [Pg.1742]

Aono M, Hou Y, Souda R, Oshima C, Otani S, Ishizawa Y, Matsuda K and Shimizu R 1982 Interaction potential between He" and Ti in a keV range as revealed by a specialized technique in ion scattering spectroscopy Japan. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 21 L670-2... [Pg.1825]

Here the transition state is approximated by the lowest crossing pomt on the seam intersecting the diabatic (non-interacting) potential energy surfaces of the reactant and product. The method was originally developed... [Pg.2350]

Rare-gas clusters can be produced easily using supersonic expansion. They are attractive to study theoretically because the interaction potentials are relatively simple and dominated by the van der Waals interactions. The Lennard-Jones pair potential describes the stmctures of the rare-gas clusters well and predicts magic clusters with icosahedral stmctures [139, 140]. The first five icosahedral clusters occur at 13, 55, 147, 309 and 561 atoms and are observed in experiments of Ar, Kr and Xe clusters [1411. Small helium clusters are difficult to produce because of the extremely weak interactions between helium atoms. Due to the large zero-point energy, bulk helium is a quantum fluid and does not solidify under standard pressure. Large helium clusters, which are liquid-like, have been produced and studied by Toennies and coworkers [142]. Recent experiments have provided evidence of... [Pg.2400]

Most infrared spectroscopy of complexes is carried out in tire mid-infrared, which is tire region in which tire monomers usually absorb infrared radiation. Van der Waals complexes can absorb mid-infrared radiation eitlier witli or without simultaneous excitation of intennolecular bending and stretching vibrations. The mid-infrared bands tliat contain tire most infonnation about intennolecular forces are combination bands, in which tire intennolecular vibrations are excited. Such spectra map out tire vibrational and rotational energy levels associated witli monomers in excited vibrational states and, tluis, provide infonnation on interaction potentials involving excited monomers, which may be slightly different from Arose for ground-state molecules. [Pg.2444]

In the theory of the liquid state, the hard-sphere model plays an important role. For hard spheres, the pair interaction potential V r) = qo for r < J, where d is the particle diameter, whereas V(r) = 0 for r s d. The stmcture of a simple fluid, such as argon, is very similar to that of a hard-sphere fluid. Hard-sphere atoms do, of course, not exist. Certain model colloids, however, come very close to hard-sphere behaviour. These systems have been studied in much detail and some results will be quoted below. [Pg.2668]

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