# SEARCH

** Frozen-core spin-orbit Hamiltonian **

Xlie correction due to electron correlation would be expected to be greater for the unionised state than for the ionised state, as the former has more electrons. Fortunately, therefore, the t-tfect of electron correlation often opposes the effect of the frozen orbitals, resulting in many cases in good agreement between experimentally determined ionisation potentials and caU Lila ted values. [Pg.95]

A H

In the uncorrelated limit, where the many-electron Fock operator replaces the full electronic Hamiltonian, familiar objects of HF theory are recovered as special cases. N) becomes a HF, determinantal wavefunction for N electrons and N 1) states become the frozen-orbital wavefunctions that are invoked in Koopmans s theorem. Poles equal canonical orbital energies and DOs are identical to canonical orbitals. [Pg.36]

To circumvent problems associated with the link atoms different approaches have been developed in which localized orbitals are added to model the bond between the QM and MM regions. Warshel and Levitt [17] were the first to suggest the use of localized orbitals in QM/MM studies. In the local self-consistent field (LSCF) method the QM/MM frontier bond is described with a strictly localized orbital, also called a frozen orbital [43]. These frozen orbitals are parameterized by use of small model molecules and are kept constant in the SCF calculation. The frozen orbitals, and the localized orbital methods in general, must be parameterized for each quantum mechanical model (i.e. energy-calculation method and basis set) to achieve reliable treatment of the boundary [34]. This restriction is partly circumvented in the generalized hybrid orbital (GHO) method [44], In this method, which is an extension of the LSCF method, the boundary MM atom is described by four hybrid orbitals. The three hybrid orbitals that would be attached to other MM atoms are fixed. The remaining hybrid orbital, which represents the bond to a QM atom, participates in the SCF calculation of the QM part. In contrast with LSCF approach the added flexibility of the optimized hybrid orbital means that no specific parameterization of this orbital is needed for each new system. [Pg.165]

Murphy et al. [34,45] have parameterized and extensively tested a QM/MM approach utilizing the frozen orbital method at the HF/6-31G and B3LYP/6-31G levels for amino acid side chains. They parameterized the van der Waals parameters of the QM atoms and molecular mechanical bond, angle and torsion angle parameters (Eq. 3, Hqm/mm (bonded int.)) acting across the covalent QM/MM boundary. High-level QM calculations were used as a reference in the parameterization and the molecular mechanical calculations were performed with the OPLS-AA force... [Pg.165]

Separation of covalently bonded atoms into QM and MM regions introduces an unsatisfied valence in the QM region this can be satisfied by several different methods. In the frozen-orbital approach a strictly localized hybrid sp2 bond orbital containing a single electron is used at the QM/MM junction [29]. Fro-... [Pg.180]

In the simplest frozen orbital approach, both IE and EA values can be approximated as the negative of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies, respectively, following the Koopmans theorem. A better way is to calculate the energies of the system and its cationic and anionic counterparts separately and then estimate fx and 17 from Equations 12.4 and 12.5, respectively. [Pg.165]

Fukui functions and other response properties can also be derived from the one-electron Kohn-Sham orbitals of the unperturbed system [14]. Following Equation 12.9, Fukui functions can be connected and estimated within the molecular orbital picture as well. Under frozen orbital approximation (FOA of Fukui) and neglecting the second-order variations in the electron density, the Fukui function can be approximated as follows [15] ... [Pg.167]

Parr immediately pointed out that, in the frozen orbital approximation, these derivatives can be approximated with the squares of the lowest unoccupied (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) ... [Pg.258]

All these functional derivatives are well defined and do not involve any actual derivative relative to the electron number. It is remarkable that the derivatives of the Kohn-Sham chemical potential /rs gives the so-called radical Fukui function [8] either in a frozen orbital approximation or by including the relaxation of the KS band structure. On the other hand, the derivative of the Kohn-Sham HOMO-FUMO gap (defined here as a positive quantity) is the so-called nonlinear Fukui function fir) [26,32,50] also called Fukui difference [51]. [Pg.349]

The X-ray photoelectron spectrum of the core ionization of an atom in a molecule consists of peaks and bands corresponding to transitions to various excited states. None of these transitions corresponds to the formation of the Koopmans theorem frozen-orbital ionic state, which is a completely hypothetical state. However, the center of gravity of the various peaks and bands lies at the energy corresponding... [Pg.166]

In the Hartree-Fock, frozen-orbital case, Pp acquires its maximum value, unity. Final states with large correlation effects are characterized by low pole strengths. Transition intensities, such as those in Eq. (2.7), are proportional to Pp. [Pg.134]

There is one other step sometimes taken to make the CAS/RAS calculation more efficient, and that is to freeze the shapes of the core orbitals to those determined at the HF level. Thus, there may be four different types of orbitals in a particular MCSCF calculation frozen orbitals, inactive orbitals, RAS orbitals, and CAS orbitals. Figure 7.3 illustrates the situation in detail. Again, symmetry is the theoretician s friend in keeping the size of the system manageable in favorable cases. [Pg.209]

localized self-consistent-field (LSCF) method of Ferenczy et al. (1992), originally described for the NDDO level of theory. In this case, the auxiliary region consists of a single frozen orbital on each QM boundary atom. [Pg.475]

A subtle but key difference in the methodologies is that the orbital containing the two electrons in the C-X bond is frozen in the LSCF method, optimized in the context of an X-H bond in the link atom method, and optimized subject only to the constraint that atom C s contribution be a particular sp hybrid in the GHO method. In the link atom and LSCF methods, the MM partial charge on atom C interacts with some or all of the quantum system in the GHO method, it is only used to set the population in the frozen orbitals. [Pg.476]

Effective core potential calculations using frozen orbitals. Applications to transition metals Chem.Phys. 80, 7... [Pg.420]

The most accurate theoretical results for positronium formation in positron-helium collisions in the energy range 20-150 eV are probably those of Campbell et al. (1998a), who used the coupled-state method with the lowest three positronium states and 24 helium states, each of which was represented by an uncorrelated frozen orbital wave function... [Pg.170]

Figure 2. Relaxation of t states. Left the frozen orbitals of the 4Agg ground state. Right full-scale SCF calculations. The energies are not drawn to scale. |

Table I Interelectronic repulsion energy in the frozen orbital approximation (C) and in the SCF approximation (C )(l). |

** Frozen-core spin-orbit Hamiltonian **

© 2019 chempedia.info