In the former case, the rate is independent of the diffusion coefficient and is determined by the intrinsic chemical kinetics in the latter case, the rate is independent of the rate constant k and depends on the diffusion coefficient the reaction is then diffusion controlled. This is a different kind of mass transport influence than that characteristic of a reactant from a gas to ahquid phase. [Pg.162]

System variables. Viscosity, density and thermal conductivity of the liquid, interfacial tension, diffusion coefficients, chemical reaction rate constants Operating variables. Impeller speed, gas flow rate, liquid volume, pressure Equipment variables. Impeller type and diameter, geometry of the equipment. [Pg.330]

Figures 9 and 10 give the calculated carbon dioxide concentration in the paint film, using different values for the diffusion coefficient and reaction rate constants. |

As mentioned, all reaction models will include initially unknown reaction parameters such as reaction orders, rate constants, activation energies, phase change rate constants, diffusion coefficients and reaction enthalpies. Unfortunately, it is a fact that there is hardly any knowledge about these kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for a large majority of reactions in the production of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals this impedes the use of model-based optimisation tools for individual reaction steps, so the identification of optimal and safe reaction conditions, for example, can be difficult. [Pg.199]

The numerical value of each of these constants depends on temperature due to the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients, chemical reaction rate constant, and equilibrium constant. [Pg.490]

It is observed that the reaction (2CO (g)=C02(g)+C(s)) becomes easy and deposited carbon appears at a low temperature(600 700 C). As the deposited carbon reaction is exothermic reaction, high temperature would restrain the reduction. Hence, the gas diffusion coefficient and reduction rate constant are low between 600 "C and 700 C. Moreover, the deposited carbon in the surface of pellets is unfavorable to the reduction. Consequently, the pellets retention time of low temperature area in shaft furnace should be controlled as short as possible to prevent carbon deposition. [Pg.356]

Detailed quantitative analyses of the data allowed the production of a mathematical model, which was able to reproduce all of the characteristics seen in the experiments carried out. Comparing model profiles with the data enabled the diffusion coefficients of the various components and reaction rates to be estimated. It was concluded that oxygen inhibition and latex turbidity present real obstacles to the formation of uniformly cross-linked waterborne coatings in this type of system. This study showed that GARField profiles are sufficiently quantitative to allow comparison with simple models of physical processes. This type of comparison between model and experiment occurs frequently in the analysis of GARField data. [Pg.96]

Even if the flow conditions of liquids on the microscale are almost laminar and therefore numerical simulations with high accuracy are applicable, there are several reasons for the basic necessity for experimental flow visualization. In most cases, for instance, the exact data of geometries and wall conditions of microchannels and data on chemical media such as diffusion coefficients and reaction rates are unknown. Furthermore, in cases of chemical reactions, the interaction between mass transport and conversion are not calculable to date, especially if simultaneous catalytic processes take place. Therefore, the visualization of microscale flow is a helpful tool for understanding and optimizing microchannels. [Pg.96]

The best prospect for this field appears to be the electrophoretic technique. Variants of the light-scattering method such as fluorescence and Raman and infrared intensity fluctuations are also promising, although only the fluorescence technique has been used so far to measure reaction rate constants. Feher (1973) has introduced a technique which directly measures fluctuations of electrical conductivity of dilute electrolyte solutions. These fluctuations may be related to diffusion coefficients and reaction rate constants by methods similar to those described in this chapter. [Pg.109]

The variation of efficiencies is due to interaction phenomena caused by the simultaneous diffusional transport of several components. From a fundamental point of view one should therefore take these interaction phenomena explicitly into account in the description of the elementary processes (i.e. mass and heat transfer with chemical reaction). In literature this approach has been used within the non-equilibrium stage model (Sivasubramanian and Boston, 1990). Sawistowski (1983) and Sawistowski and Pilavakis (1979) have developed a model describing reactive distillation in a packed column. Their model incorporates a simple representation of the prevailing mass and heat transfer processes supplemented with a rate equation for chemical reaction, allowing chemical enhancement of mass transfer. They assumed elementary reaction kinetics, equal binary diffusion coefficients and equal molar latent heat of evaporation for each component. [Pg.2]

In this work, we perform a sensitivity analysis of selected parameters of a commercial 26650 LiFePO/graphite cell and investigate their effect on the simulated impedance spectrum. Basic values such as layer thickness and particle radii are taken from literature and preceding measurements. The model implemented within the commercial Finite Element Method (FEM) software COMSOL Multiphysics is then solved in the frequency domain. To demonstrate the capabilities of this method, variations in state of charge, particle radius, solid state diffusion coefficient and reaction rate are analysed. These parameters evoke characteristic and also unusual properties of the observed impedance spectrum. [Pg.53]

The same approaches that were successful in linear chromatography—the use of either one of several possible liunped kinetic models or of the general rate model — have been applied to the study of nonlinear chromatography. The basic difference results from the replacement of a linear isotherm by a nonlinear one and from the coupling this isotiienn provides between the mass balance equations of the different components of the mixture. This complicates considerably the mathematical problem. Analytical solutions are possible only in a few simple cases. These cases are limited to the band profile of a pure component in frontal analysis and elution, in the case of the reaction-kinetic model (Section 14.2), and to the frontal analysis of a pure component or a binary mixture, if one can assume constant pattern. In all other cases, the use of numerical solutions is necessary. Furthermore, in most studies found in the literature, the diffusion coefficient and the rate constant or coefficient of mass transfer are assumed to be constant and independent of the concentration. Actually, these parameters are often concentration dependent and coupled, which makes the solution of the problem as well as the discussion of experimental results still more complicated. [Pg.653]

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