I CRS interferogram with a frequency of A = coj + 2c0j - cOq, where cOp is the detected frequency, coj is the narrowband frequency and coj the Raman (vibrational) frequency. Since cOq and coj are known, Wj may be extracted from the experimentally measured RDOs. Furthemiore, the dephasing rate constant, yj, is detemiined from the observed decay rate constant, y, of the I CRS interferogram. Typically for the I CRS signal coq A 0. That is, the RDOs represent strongly down-converted (even to zero... [Pg.1209]

The difference compared to equation B 1.13.2 or equation B 1.13.3 is the occurrence of the expectation value of the operator (the two-spin order), characterized by its own decay rate pjg and coupled to the one-spin longitudinal operators by the tenus 8j aud 5. We shall come back to the physical origin of these tenus below. [Pg.1502]

As the spins precess in the equatorial plane, they also undergo random relaxation processes that disturb their movement and prevent them from coming together fiilly realigned. The longer the time i between the pulses the more spins lose coherence and consequently the weaker the echo. The decay rate of the two-pulse echo amplitude is described by the phase memory time, which is the time span during which a spin can remember its position in the dephased pattern after the first MW pulse. Tyy is related to the homogeneous linewidth of the individual spin packets and is usually only a few microseconds, even at low temperatures. [Pg.1576]

Once the basic work has been done, the observed spectrum can be calculated in several different ways. If the problem is solved in tlie time domain, then the solution provides a list of transitions. Each transition is defined by four quantities the mtegrated intensity, the frequency at which it appears, the linewidth (or decay rate in the time domain) and the phase. From this list of parameters, either a spectrum or a time-domain FID can be calculated easily. The spectrum has the advantage that it can be directly compared to the experimental result. An FID can be subjected to some sort of apodization before Fourier transfomiation to the spectrum this allows additional line broadening to be added to the spectrum independent of the sumilation. [Pg.2104]

Mandelshtam V A and Taylor H S 1997 Spectral analysis of time correlation function for a dissipative dynamical system using filter diagonalization application to calculation of unimolecular decay rates Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 3274... [Pg.2328]

Keiier R A 1998 Singie-moiecuie identification in flowing sampie streams by fluorescence burst size and intraburst fluorescence decay rate Anal. Chem. 70 1444-51... [Pg.2506]

reaction kinetics was reported in 1984 (68). The reaction of bis(pentachlorophenyl) oxalate [1173-75-7] (PCPO) and hydrogen peroxide cataly2ed by sodium saUcylate in chlorobenzene produced chemiluminescence from diphenylamine (DPA) as a simple time—intensity profile from which a chemiluminescence decay rate constant could be determined. These studies demonstrated a first-order dependence for both PCPO and hydrogen peroxide and a zero-order dependence on the fluorescer in accord with an earher study (9). Furthermore, the chemiluminescence quantum efficiencies Qc) are dependent on the ease of oxidation of the fluorescer, an unstable, short-hved intermediate (r = 0.5 /is) serves as the chemical activator, and such a short-hved species "is not consistent with attempts to identify a relatively stable dioxetane as the intermediate" (68). [Pg.266]

The occurrence of nonradiative losses is classically illustrated in Figure 3. At sufficiently high temperature the emitting state relaxes to the ground state by the crossover at B of the two curves. In fact, for many broad-band emitting phosphors the temperature dependence of the nonradiative decay rate P is given bv equation 1 ... [Pg.285]

Table 15 shows data for several radionucHdes the y-rays of which are often used to caHbrate the efficiency of y-ray detectors. For a number of these y-rays the very high accuracy arises because the y-ray occurs in essentially 100% of the decays of the nucHde, and only small corrections ate needed to deduce the y-emission probabiHty. In other cases the accuracy is high because a number of careful measurements have been made. The y-emission rate from a caHbration source also depends on the decay rate of the source, and for these nucHdes the uncertainty in the source activity is often the larger uncertainty. [Pg.456]

Although energy resolution is rarely employed in positron camera systems, scatter is not normally a problem. This is because of the very short time window within which two photons must arrive in order to be counted. At low decay rates, the incidence of accidental events is very low, rising only slightly for those that occur as the result of scatter. Some systems employ time-of-flight measurements of the time difference between the arrival of the two photons to obtain additional information about the location of an annihilation along the line. This has been used to improve resolution and statistical accuracy. Resolution is in the range of 3—4 mm and is less dependent on position than is SPECT (16). [Pg.482]

The Oklo Phenomenon. Naturally occurring uranium consists mainly of and fissionable The isotopic ratio can be calculated from the relative decay rates of the two isotopes. Because decays faster than the isotopic ratio decreases with time. In 1997, the isotopic abundance of 235u... [Pg.315]

Introduction of the surface-nucleation mechanism in numerical computation of elastic-plastic wave evolution leads to enhanced precursor attenuation in thin specimens, but not in thicker ones. Inclusion of dislocation nucleation at subgrain boundaries indicates that a relatively low concentration of subgrain boundaries ( 2/mm) and nucleation density (10"-10 m ) is sufficient to obtain predicted precursor decay rates which are comparable to those obtained from the experiments. These experiments are only slightly above the threshold necessary to produce enhanced elastic-precursor decay. [Pg.229]

Equation (3.32) demonstrates that the decay rate for a metastable state is equal to the inverse period of classical vibrations in the well ( attempt frequency ) times the barrier transparency. [Pg.43]

Nonohmic behavior is pronounced for nonconductive liquids in plastic tanks, whose dielectric walls further complicate the charge decay rate [206]. [Pg.15]

Activity The nature of the work carried out by a person, measured in Met units. Also, the decay rate of radioactive particles. [Pg.1405]

Decay rate The rate at which the concen tration of an air pollutant decreases with time, due to absorption or precipitation. [Pg.1427]

Dilution equations Mathematical equations that allow the determination of the decay rate of a pollutant in a space due to mechanical or natural ventilation. [Pg.1429]

During the 1950s, Professor W. F. Libby (1908-1980) of the University of Chicago and others worked out a method for determining the age of organic material It is based on the decay rate of carbon-14. The method can be applied to objects from a few hundred up to 50,000 years old. It has been used to determine the authenticity of canvases of Renaissance painters and to check the ages of relics left by prehistoric cave dwellers. [Pg.519]

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See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.228 ]

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