Figure 15 shows results for a difficult type I system methanol-n-heptane-benzene. In this example, the two-phase region is extremely small. The dashed line (a) shows predictions using the original UNIQUAC equation with q = q. This form of the UNIQUAC equation does not adequately fit the binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the methanol-benzene system and therefore the ternary predictions are grossly in error. The ternary prediction is much improved with the modified UNIQUAC equation (b) since this equation fits the methanol-benzene system much better. Further improvement (c) is obtained when a few ternary data are used to fix the binary parameters. [Pg.66]

Figure 16 shows observed and calculated VLE and LLE for the system benzene-water-ethanol. In this unusually fortunate case, predictions based on the binary data alone (dashed line) are in good agreement with the experimental ternary data. Several factors contribute to this good agreement VLE data for the mis-... [Pg.69]

Because the pseudo-inverse filter is chosen from the class of additive filters, the regularization can be done without taking into account the noise, (n). At the end of this procedure the noise is transformed to the output of the pseudo-inverse filter (long dashed lines on Fig. 1). The regularization criteria F(a,a) has to fulfill the next conditions (i) leading to an additive filter algorithm, (ii) having the asymptotic property a, —> a, for K,M... [Pg.122]

For the iteration algorithm (5) the optimal estimations (6) are directly used by a second back loop to block B (long dashed line in Fig. 1). [Pg.123]

In order to check the the validity of this method [8], 6 detection media Px where selected and applied on the reference pieces following the instructions of the standard (inclination angle 45° 3 applications of the detection medium and averaging). The arrangements of the cuts can be seen at Fig. 3. Indications or parts of indications are chosen for the valuation and marked by dashed lines. [Pg.672]

Fig. XVIII-11. Calorimetric differential heat of adsorption of H2 on ZnO. Dashed line differential heat of desorption. (From Ref. 104.)... |

temperature unit Kelvin). The dashed lines represent metastable extensions of the stable phases beyond the transition temperatures. [Pg.612]

[Pg.2471]

A well-understood catalytic cycle is tliat of the Wilkinson alkene hydrogenation (figure C2.7.2) [2]. Like most catalytic cycles, tliat shown in figure C2.7.2 is complex, involving intennediate species in tire cycle (inside tire dashed line) and otlier species outside tire cycle and in dead-end patlis. Knowledge of all but a small number of catalytic cycles is only fragmentary because of tire complexity and because, if tire catalyst is active, tire cycle turns over rapidly and tire concentrations of tire intennediates are minute thus, tliese intennediates are often not even... [Pg.2699]

Figure C2.7.2. Catalytic cycle (witliin dashed lines) for tire Wilkinson hydrogenation of alkene [2]. Values of rate and equilibrium constants are given in [2]... |

Passivation is manifested in a polarization curve (figure C2.8.4) dashed line) by a dramatic decrease in current at a particular onset potential (the passivation potential, density, is lowered by several orders of magnitude. [Pg.2722]

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