Actually, as the velocity approaches zero, the first differential also approaches zero and we have the situation d C/(0) = 0 x dp in the limiting case of zero velocity. This could be interpreted that in an approximation of first order the energy at zero velocity cannot be increased by transferring momentum to the system. However, at the same time as the momentum increases, the velocity increases with the same order of one. [Pg.141]

In both examples mentioned, i.e., kinetic energy and plate condenser, the extensive variable approaches zero as the intensive variable approaches zero. The situation appears to be in a different manner for thermal energy. If we expect some analogy to the forgoing energy forms, we would expect that the heat capacity would not be a constant. [Pg.141]

Observe the relationship to the Stefan - Boltzmann equation. It can be easily verified that [Pg.142]

As S approaches to zero, the first derivative approaches zero, with a lower power than the second derivative approaches infinity. In fact, the series expansion at 5 = 0 is not possible. [Pg.142]

A fiill solution of tlie nonlinear radiation follows from the Maxwell equations. The general case of radiation from a second-order nonlinear material of finite thickness was solved by Bloembergen and Pershan in 1962 [40]. That problem reduces to the present one if we let the interfacial thickness approach zero. Other equivalent solutions involved tlie application of the boundary conditions for a polarization sheet [14] or the... [Pg.1277]

The second tenn in equation (B 1.9.85) rapidly approaches zero in the large q region, tiuis... [Pg.1404]

Again, the second tenn in (B 1.9.97) rapidly approaches zero at large q thus we obtain... [Pg.1406]

This is equivalent to finding the lowest eigenvalue 1. (which is always negative and approaches zero at convergence) of the generalized eigenvalue equation... [Pg.2339]

There are some bonndary conditions which can be used to fix parameters A, and Aj. For example, when the distance between nucleus A and n nclens B approaches zero, i.e., = 0.0, the value... [Pg.288]

III fact, while this correction gives the desired behaviour at relatively long separations, it doLS not account for the fact that as two nuclei approach each other the screening by the core electrons decreases. As the separation approaches zero the core-core repulsion iimild be described by Coulomb s law. In MINDO/3 this is achieved by making the cure-core interaction a function of the electron-electron repulsion integrals as follows ... [Pg.115]

By ensuring that the first derivative is zero at the endpoints the force also approaches zero smoothly. A continuous second derivative is required to ensure that the integration algorithm works properly. If the switch function is assumed to take the following form ... [Pg.347]

For simplicity, we define T - and T (A iooTe/At). As explained by Luo and Tanner (1989), the decoupled method requires a suitable variable transfonna-tion in the governing equations (3.20) and (3.21). This is to ensure that the discrete momentum equations always contain the real viscous term required to recover the Newtonian velocity-pressure formulation when Ws approaches zero. This is achieved by decomposing the extra stress T as... [Pg.82]

Note that since t is an odd function, Cn is imaginary, and as n Cn approaches zero. C. Fourier Transforms... [Pg.551]

As j approaches zero, this method reduces to the velocity Verlet algorithm ... [Pg.93]

TABLE 11.34 Formation Constants of EDTA Complexes at 25°C, Ionic Strength Approaching Zero ... [Pg.1174]

Several features of equation 6.50 deserve mention. First, as the ionic strength approaches zero, the activity coefficient approaches a value of one. Thus, in a solution where the ionic strength is zero, an ion s activity and concentration are identical. We can take advantage of this fact to determine a reaction s thermodynamic equilibrium constant. The equilibrium constant based on concentrations is measured for several increasingly smaller ionic strengths and the results extrapolated... [Pg.173]

Remember the units involved here For f they are length time for N, length and for t, time. Therefore the exponent is dimensionless, as required. The form of Eq. (4.24) is such that at small times the exponential equals unity and 6 = 0 at long times the exponential approaches zero and 0 = 1. In between, an S-shaped curve is predicted for the development of crystallinity with time. Experimentally, curves of this shape are indeed observed. We shall see presently, however, that this shape is also consistent with other mechanisms besides the one considered until now. [Pg.222]

These last expressions provide two very useful views of the progress of a condensation polymerization reaction with time. Equation (5.14) describes how the concentration of A groups asymptotically approaches zero at long times Eq. (5.17) describes how the degree of polymerization increases linearly with time. [Pg.285]

The individual monomers have been arranged in such a way as to achieve to the greatest extent possible values of rjr2 that approach zero toward the apex of the triangle and values of rjr2 which approach unity toward the base of the triangle. [Pg.434]

The smaller the overall dimensions of a molecule, the smaller will be the rj, value for any pair of sites in the molecule. As the values of rj, approach zero, P(0) -> 1, as required. [Pg.702]

FiaaHy, the Ogp term is the contribution resulting from iateractions between adsorbate molecules. At low coverages of the adsorbent by adsorbate molecules, this contribution approaches zero, and at high coverage it often causes a noticeable iacrease ia the heat of adsorption. [Pg.270]

Eigure 8 compares the failure probabiUty and reflabiUty functions for an exponential distribution. Whereas the reflabiUty of the device is initially unity, it falls off exponentially with time and asymptotically approaches zero. The failure probabiUty, on the other hand, does the reverse. Thus new devices start Life with high reflabiUty and end with a high failure probabiUty. [Pg.475]

The viscosity of solutions is quite temperature dependent increasing the temperature leads to a reduction in viscosity, which approaches zero at approximately 60°C (322). The viscosity is relatively stable from pH 3—10 and is compatible with a number of inorganic salts other than sodium. The production of succinoglycan and its potential use in foods and industrial processes as a thickening agent has been described (322). [Pg.301]

Poly(ethylene oxide)—Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Copolymers. The poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PEO/PET) copolymers were first described in 1954 (40). This group of polymers was developed in an attempt to simultaneously reduce the crystallinity of PET, and increase its hydrophilicity to improve dyeabiHty. PEO/PET copolymers with increased PEO contents produce surfaces that approach zero interfacial energy between the implant and the adjacent biological tissue. The coUagenous capsule formed around the implant is thinner as the PEO contents increase. The stmcture of a PEO/PET copolymer is shown below ... [Pg.191]

Second Law of Thermodynamics. The entropy change of any system together with its surroundings is positive for a real process, approaching zero as the process approaches reversibiUty ... [Pg.481]

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