In linear, spherical and synnnetric tops the components of a along and perpendicular to the principal axis of synnnetry are often denoted by a and respectively. In such cases, the anisotropy is simply Aa = tty -If the applied field is oscillating at a frequency w, then the dipole polarizability is frequency dependent as well a(co). The zero frequency limit of the dynamic polarizability a(oi) is the static polarizability described above. [Pg.189]

In the Smoluchowski limit, one usually assumes that the Stokes-Einstein relation (Dq//r7)a = C holds, which fonns the basis of taking the solvent viscosity as a measure for the zero-frequency friction coefficient appearing in Kramers expressions. Here C is a constant whose exact value depends on the type of boundary conditions used in deriving Stokes law. It follows that the diffiision coefficient ratio is given by ... [Pg.850]

To conclude this section it should be pointed out again that the friction coefficient has been considered to be frequency independent as implied in assuming a Markov process, and that zero-frequency friction as represented by solvent viscosity is an adequate parameter to describe the effect of friction on observed reaction rates. [Pg.851]

The key feature of A3.8.18 is that the centroids of the reaction coordinate Feymnan paths are constrained to be at the position q. The centroid g particular reaction coordinate path q(x) is given by the zero-frequency Fourier mode, i.e. [Pg.892]

Locate the compensating error amplifier pole at the lowest anticipated zero frequency caused by the ESR of the capacitor or... [Pg.112]

The next task is to determine the plaeement of the eompensating zero and pole within the error amplifier. The zero is plaeed at the lowest frequency manifestation of the filter pole. Since for the voltage-mode controlled flyback converter, and the current-mode controlled flyback and forward converters, this pole s frequency changes in response to the equivalent load resistance. The lightest expected load results in the lowest output filter pole frequency. The error amplifier s high frequency compensating pole is placed at the lowest anticipated zero frequency in the control-to-output curve cause by the ESR of the capacitor. In short ... [Pg.214]

There is an important practical distinction between electronic and dipole polarisation whereas the former involves only movement of electrons the latter entails movement of part of or even the whole of the molecule. Molecular movements take a finite time and complete orientation as induced by an alternating current may or may not be possible depending on the frequency of the change of direction of the electric field. Thus at zero frequency the dielectric constant will be at a maximum and this will remain approximately constant until the dipole orientation time is of the same order as the reciprocal of the frequency. Dipole movement will now be limited and the dipole polarisation effect and the dielectric constant will be reduced. As the frequency further increases, the dipole polarisation effect will tend to zero and the dielectric constant will tend to be dependent only on the electronic polarisation Figure 6.3). Where there are two dipole species differing in ease of orientation there will be two points of inflection in the dielectric constant-frequency curve. [Pg.113]

It is interesting to note that the lowest phonon mode with non-zero frequency at A = 0 is not a nodeless A g mode, but rather an E2g mode with four nodes in which the cross section of the CNT is vibrating with the symmetry described by the basis functions of and xy. The calculated frequency of the E g mode... [Pg.54]

These effective frequencies are chosen such that contributes only for optical processes with at least three non-zero frequency arguments, while u 4 is only non-zero if all four frequency arguments are non-zero. During the implementation it was also found that this choice for the effective frequencies leads to the most compact expressions for the coefficients Ak,i,m in terms of D n,m,l). Using a similar notation as in Eq. (73), 7 (o o Wi,o 2i 3) can up to sixth order in the frequencies be expanded... [Pg.127]

Apparently, the time-domain and frequency-domain signals are interlinked with one another, and the shape of the time-domain decaying exponential will determine the shape of the peaks obtained in the frequency domain after Fourier transformation. A decaying exponential will produce a Lorentzian line at zero frequency after Fourier transformation, while an exponentially decaying cosinusoid will yield a Lorentzian line that is offset from zero by an amount equal to the frequency of oscillation of the cosinusoid (Fig. 1.23). [Pg.33]

Lorentzian line at zero, (b) The FT of an exponentially decaying consinusoid FID gives a Lorentzian line offset from zero frequency. The offset from zero is equal to the frequency of oscillation of the consinusoid. (Reprinted from S. W. Homans, A dictionary of concepts in NMR, copyright 1990, p. 127-129, by permission of Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP, U.K.)... [Pg.35]

The normalization condition ((0 i) = 0) imposes to move the origin to the center of electronic charge ((u) = 0,u = x,y,z) thus, the polarizability may be written very simply in the limit of zero frequency ... [Pg.264]

In Section 40.3.4 we have shown that the FT of a discrete signal consisting of 2N + 1 data points, comprises N real, N imaginary Fourier coefficients (positive frequencies) and the average value (zero frequency). We also indicated that N real and N imaginary Fourier coefficients can be defined in the negative frequency domain. In Section 40.3.1 we explained that the FT of signals, which are symmetrical about the / = 0 in the time domain contain only real Fourier coefficients. [Pg.527]

[Pg.81]

On the magnitude plot, the low frequency (also called zero frequency) asymptote is a horizontal line at Kp. On the phase angle plot, the low frequency asymptote is the 0° line. On the polar plot, the zero frequency limit is represented by the point Kp on the real axis. In the limit of high frequencies,... [Pg.148]

Treating the free electrons in a metal as a collection of zero-frequency oscillators gives rise51 to a complex frequency-dependent dielectric constant of 1 - a>2/(co2 - ia>/r), with (op = (47me2/m)l/2 the plasma frequency and r a collision time. For metals like Ag and Au, and with frequencies (o corresponding to visible or ultraviolet light, this simplifies to give a real part... [Pg.38]

Presented in this manner, the analysis may proceed similarly to the treatment obtained from the Fourier analysis. C is the zero frequency component of the fit and A and B may be treated as the real and imaginary parts of the complex number. [Pg.93]

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