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** Relativistic methods scalar effects **

Assuming that substituted Sb at the surface may work as catalytic active site as well as W, First-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed with Becke-Perdew [7, 9] functional to evaluate the binding energy between p-xylene and catalyst. Scalar relativistic effects were treated with the energy-consistent pseudo-potentials for W and Sb. However, the binding strength with p-xylene is much weaker for Sb (0.6 eV) than for W (2.4 eV), as shown in Fig. 4. [Pg.62]

However, there also exists a third possibility. By using a famous relation due to Dirac, the relativistic effects can be (in a nonunique way) divided into spin-independent and spin-dependent terms. The former are collectively called scalar relativistic effects and the latter are subsumed under the name spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The scalar relativistic effects can be straightforwardly included in the one-electron Hamiltonian operator h. Unless the investigated elements are very heavy, this recovers the major part of the distortion of the orbitals due to relativity. The SOC terms may be treated in a second step by perturbation theory. This is the preferred way of approaching molecular properties and only breaks down in the presence of very heavy elements or near degeneracy of the investigated electronic state. [Pg.148]

Table 5.1 Effect of relativity on Hartree-Eock orbital energies (in eV) for the neutral Hg and Fe atoms. Scalar relativistic effects were treated with the DKH2 approximation... |

The importance of scalar relativistic effects for compounds of transition metals and/or heavy main group elements is well established by now [44], Somewhat surprisingly (at first sight), they may have nontrivial contributions to the TAE of first-row and second-row systems as well, in particular if several polar bonds to a group VI or VII element are involved. For instance, in BF3, S03) and SiF4, scalar relativistic effects reduce TAE by 0.7, 1.2, and 1.9kcal/mol, respectively - quantities which clearly matter even if only chemical accuracy is sought. Likewise, in a benchmark study on the electron affinities of the first-and second-row atoms [45] - where we were able to reproduce the experimental values to... [Pg.41]

Bauschlicher [48] compared a number of approximate approaches for scalar relativistic effects to Douglas-Kroll quasirelativistic CCSD(T) calculations. He found that the ACPF/MTsmall level of theory faithfully reproduces his more rigorous calculations, while the use of non-size extensive approaches like CISD leads to serious errors. For third-row main group systems, studies by the same author [49] indicate that more rigorous approaches may be in order. [Pg.42]

Table 2.4 Comparison of scalar relativistic effect contributions to TAEo (kcal/mol) for the W2-1 test set. |

Initially, the level of theory that provides accurate geometries and bond energies of TM compounds, yet allows calculations on medium-sized molecules to be performed with reasonable time and CPU resources, had to be determined. Systematic investigations of effective core potentials (ECPs) with different valence basis sets led us to propose a standard level of theory for calculations on TM elements, namely ECPs with valence basis sets of a DZP quality [9, 10]. The small-core ECPs by Hay and Wadt [11] has been chosen, where the original valence basis sets (55/5/N) were decontracted to (441/2111/N-11) withN = 5,4, and 3, for the first-, second-, and third-row TM elements, respectively. The ECPs of the second and third TM rows include scalar relativistic effects while the first-row ECPs are nonrelativistic [11], For main-group elements, either 6-31G(d) [12-16] all electron basis set or, for the heavier elements, ECPs with equivalent (31/31/1) valence basis sets [17] have been employed. This combination has become our standard basis set II, which is used in a majority of our calculations [18]. [Pg.200]

Four-component relativistic molecular calculations are based directly on the Dirac equation. They include both scalar relativistic effects and spin-orbit... [Pg.384]

We now consider how to eliminate the spin-orbit interaction, but not scalar relativistic effects, from the Dirac equation (25). The straightforward elimination of spin-dependent terms, taken to be terms involving the Pauli spin matrices, certainly does not work as it eliminates all kinetic energy as well. A minimum requirement for a correct procedure for the elimination of spin-orbit interaction is that the remaining operator should go to the correct non-relativistic limit. However, this check does not guarantee that some scalar relativistic effects are eliminated as well, as pointed out by Visscher and van Lenthe [44]. Dyall [12] suggested the elimination of the spin-orbit interaction by the non-unitary transformation... [Pg.392]

We extend the method over all three rows of TMs. No systematic study is available for the heavier atoms, where relativistic effects are more prominent. Here, we use the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) Hamiltonian [14,15] to account for scalar relativistic effects. No systematic study of spin-orbit coupling has been performed but we show in a few examples how it will affect the results. A new basis set is used in these studies, which has been devised to be used with the DKH Hamiltonian. [Pg.422]

All calculations were carried out with the software MOLCAS-6.0 [16]. Scalar relativistic effects were included using a DKH Hamiltonian [14,15]. Specially designed basis sets of the atomic natural orbital type were used. These basis sets have been optimized with the scalar DKH Hamiltonian. They were generated using the CASSCF/CASPT2 method. The semi-core electrons (ns, np, n — 3,4, 5) were included in the correlation treatment. More details can be found in Refs. [17-19]. The size of the basis sets is presented in Table 1. All atoms have been computed with basis sets including up to g-type function. For the first row TMs we also studied the effect of adding two h-type functions. [Pg.423]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.456 ]

** Relativistic methods scalar effects **

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