The interest in periodically forced systems extends beyond performance considerations for a single reactor. Stability of structures and control characteristics of chemical plants are determined by their responses to oscillating loads. Epidemics and harvests are governed by the cycle of seasons. Bifurcation and stability analysis of periodically forced systems is especially important in the [Pg.227]

The externaiiy appiied periodic force has a frequency lu, which can vary independentiy of the system parameters. The motion equation for this system may be obtained by any of the previousiy stated methods. The Newtonian approach wiii be used here because of its conceptuai simpiicity. The freebody diagram of the mass m is shown in Figure 5-ii. [Pg.186]

SOME COMMON FEATURES OF PERIODICALLY FORCED REACTING SYSTEMS [Pg.227]

Ultrasonic absorption is a so-called stationary method in which a periodic forcing function is used. The forcing function in this case is a sound wave of known frequency. Such a wave propagating through a medium creates a periodically varying pressure difference. (It may also produce a periodic temperature difference.) Now suppose that the system contains a chemical equilibrium that can respond to pressure differences [as a consequence of Eq. (4-28)]. If the sound wave frequency is much lower than I/t, the characteristic frequency of the chemical relaxation (t is the [Pg.144]

I. Some Common Features of Periodically Forced Reacting Systems [Pg.225]

Fig. 19 Shear plane system with periodic force centres spaced at a distance p along the shear direction x and with an interplanar spacing dc according to the model of Frenkel [19] |

Dynamic mechanical tests measure the response of a material to a periodic force or its deformation by such a force. One obtains simultaneously an elastic modulus (shear, Young s, or bulk) and a mechanical damping. Polymeric materials are viscoelastic-i.e., they have some of the characteristics of both perfectly elastic solids and viscous liquids. When a polymer is deformed, some of the energy is stored as potential energy, and some is dissipated as heat. It is the latter which corresponds to mechanical damping. [Pg.23]

Exercise. The Langevin equation for a Brownian particle driven by a periodic force is, in suitable units, [Pg.227]

Kevrekidis, I. G., Schmidt, L. D., and Aris, R. (1986). Some common features of periodically forced reacting systems. Chem. Eng. Sci., 41, 1263-76. [Pg.368]

The topological (or Berry) phase [9,11,78] has been discussed in previous sections. The physical picture for it is that when a periodic force, slowly (adiabatically) varying in time, is applied to the system then, upon a full periodic evolution, the phase of the wave function may have a part that is independent of the amplitude of the force. This part exists in addition to that part of the phase that depends on the amplitude of the force and that contributes to the usual, dynamic phase. We shall now discuss whether a relativistic electron can have a Berry phase when this is absent in the framework of the Schrddinger equation, and vice versa. (We restrict the present discussion to the nearly nonrelativistic limit, when particle velocities are much smaller than c.) [Pg.166]

A comparative study was done by Kevrekidis and published as I. G. Kevrekidis, L. D. Schmidt, and R. Aris. Some common features of periodically forced reacting systems. Chem. Eng. Sci. 41,1263-1276 (1986). See also two papers by the same authors Resonance in periodically forced processes Chem. Eng. Sci. 41, 905-911 (1986) The stirred tank forced. Chem. Eng. Sci. 41,1549-1560 (1986). A full study of the Schmidt-Takoudis vacant site mechanism is to be found in M. A. McKamin, L. D. Schmidt, and R. Aris. Autonomous bifurcations of a simple bimolecular surface-reaction model. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 415,363-387 (1988) Forced oscillations of a self-oscillating bimolecular surface reaction model. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 415,363-388 (1988). [Pg.88]

Damgov, V.N. and P.G. Georgiev Amplitude Spectrum of the Possible Pendulum Motions in the Field of an External. Nonlinear to the Coordinate Periodic Force. Dynamical Systems and Chaos, World Scientific, London, Vol. 2, P. 304 (1995) [Pg.120]

The non-linear dynamics of the reactor with two PI controllers that manipulates the outlet stream flow rate and the coolant flow rate are also presented. The more interesting result, from the non-linear d mamic point of view, is the possibility to obtain chaotic behavior without any external periodic forcing. The results for the CSTR show that the non-linearities and the control valve saturation, which manipulates the coolant flow rate, are the cause of this abnormal behavior. By simulation, a homoclinic of Shilnikov t3rpe has been found at the equilibrium point. In this case, chaotic behavior appears at and around the parameter values from which the previously cited orbit is generated. [Pg.273]

The well defined contact geometry and the ionic structure of the mica surface favours observation of structural and solvation forces. Besides a monotonic entropic repulsion one may observe superimposed periodic force modulations. It is commonly believed that these modulations are due to a metastable layering at surface separations below some 3-10 molecular diameters. These diflftise layers are very difficult to observe with other teclmiques [92]. The periodicity of these oscillatory forces is regularly found to correspond to the characteristic molecular diameter. Figure Bl.20.7 shows a typical measurement of solvation forces in the case of ethanol between mica. [Pg.1739]

In the present paper we study common features of the responses of chemical reactor models to periodic forcing, and we consider accurate methods that can be used in this task. In particular, we describe an algorithm for the numerical computation and stability analysis of invariant tori. We shall consider phenomena that appear in a broad class of forced systems and illustrate them through several chemical reactor models, with emphasis on the forcing of spontaneously oscillating systems. [Pg.229]

This approach needs modification as soon as multiple attracting periodic trajectories exist for a particular set of operating parameters. A conceptually different modification will be necessary to account for attractors which are not simply periodic. Quasi-periodic solutions, characterized by multiple frequencies, are the first type one should expect these are by no means exotic but occur generally in several periodically forced systems. Deterministic chaotic situations, arising from the system nonlinearities (and not the stochastic responses due to random noise) need not be discarded as intractable (Wolf et al., 1986 Shaw, 1981). [Pg.228]

When the time dependence takes the form of a periodic perturbation of some parameter, we speak of this as periodic forcing.19 The response will obviously not be a steady state, but can be periodic, quasi-periodic, or chaotic. If the response is periodic, it may be with a period that is a multiple of the period of forcing. It is quasi-periodic if the response winds itself onto the cylinder in a helix whose pitch is an irrational multiple of the forcing period, so that it is never quite truly periodic. An example20 of a forced system is the Gray-Scott autocatalator with the feed concentration sinusoidally perturbed [Pg.88]

The boundary conditions established by the machine design determine the freedom of movement permitted within the machine-train. A basic understanding of this concept is essential for vibration analysis. Free vibration refers to the vibration of a damped (as well as undamped) system of masses with motion entirely influenced by their potential energy. Forced vibration occurs when motion is sustained or driven by an applied periodic force in either damped or undamped systems. The following sections discuss free and forced vibration for both damped and undamped systems. [Pg.677]

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