Monte Carlo simulation shows [8] that at a given instance the interface is rough on a molecular scale (see Fig. 2) this agrees well with results from molecular-dynamics studies performed with more realistic models [2,3]. When the particle densities are averaged parallel to the interface, i.e., over n and m, and over time, one obtains one-dimensional particle profiles/](/) and/2(l) = 1 — /](/) for the two solvents Si and S2, which are conveniently normalized to unity for a lattice that is completely filled with one species. Figure 3 shows two examples for such profiles. Note that the two solvents are to some extent soluble in each other, so that there is always a finite concentration of solvent 1 in the phase... [Pg.169]

The specific form of the short-time transition probability depends on the type of dynamics one uses to describe the time evolution of the system. For instance, consider a single, one-dimensional particle with mass m evolving in an external potential energy V(q) according to a Langevin equation in the high-friction limit... [Pg.253]

Craig made several interesting points in this quote from an interview at the end of the semester. The first was that the particle-in-a-box was not a good example because it wasn t useful as Craig pointed out, it is unlikely that he would ever deal with the particular case of a one-dimensional particle in a square well. Second, and even more intriguing, Craig commented that although he understood that the particle-in-a-box was an example, it was not the one he needed to see. [Pg.163]

Squared Fluctuation Functions F2(f, /), Expressed in Terms of Autocorrelation Functions p(/,/) and the Limiting Forms Taken by the Scaled rms Fluctuation Functions (/(/,/) at Short and Long Times, for the Functions /Shown and the Following Systems . (A) Harmonically bound particle. (B) One-dimensional particle in a box. (C) Plane rotor. (D) Spherical rotor. The limiting behaviour at short times is given in terms of e = 1 — p. [Pg.145]

A three-dimensional analog of the one-dimensional particle in a box is a particle in a rectangular parallelepiped with sides a, b, and c we have... [Pg.17]

The one-dimensional particle-in-a-box problem is that of a single particle subject to the following potential-energy function ... [Pg.266]

Remark. Normally the name quantum Langevin equation is used for equations that are the direct analog of the classical Langevin equation e.g., in the case of a one-dimensional particle of unit mass in a potential V,... [Pg.448]

The Maxwell-constant of a solution of rigid, one-dimensional particles reads (757). [Pg.268]

I believe essentially all of the material in the first five chapters is accessible to the advanced general chemistry students at most universities. The final three chapters are written at a somewhat higher level on the whole. Chapter 6 introduces Schrodinger s equation and rationalizes more advanced concepts, such as hybridization, molecular orbitals, and multielectron atoms. It does the one-dimensional particle-in-a-box very thoroughly (including, for example, calculating momentum and discussing nonstation-ary states) in order to develop qualitative principles for more complex problems. [Pg.225]

Equation (3.6a) is now introduced into the following set of constitutive equations for simultaneous accelerative one-dimensional particle-fluid motion in the vertical direction (Kwauk, 1964) ... [Pg.234]

In this section we will consider the method of complex scaling (2) as a typical example of an unbounded similarity transformation of the restricted type. It is here sufficient to consider a single one-dimensional particle with the real coordinate x( — oo < x < +qo), since the IV-particle operator U in a 3N-dimensional system may then be built up by using the product constructions given by Eqs. (2.23) and (2.25). [Pg.118]

For the generalized case of one-dimensional particle motion, recall that... [Pg.55]

A simple example of the wave equation, the one-dimensional particle in a box, shows how these conditions are used. We will give an outline of the method details are available elsewhere.The box is shown in Figure 2-3. The potential energy V x) inside the box, between x = 0 and x = a, is defined to be zero. Outside the box, the potential energy is infinite. This means that the particle is completely trapped in the box and would require an infinite amount of energy to leave the box. However, there are no forces acting on it within the box. [Pg.23]

Consider a variant of the one-dimensional particle-in-a-box problem in which the x-axis is bent into a ring of radius R. We can write the same Schrbdinger equation... [Pg.209]

Energy quantization arises for all systems that are confined by a potential. The one-dimensional particle-in-a-box model shows why quantization only becomes apparent on the atomic scale. Because the energy level spacing is inversely proportional to the mass and to the square of the length of the box, quantum effects become too small to observe for systems that contain more than a few hnndred atoms or so. [Pg.158]

It is clear from its form that this partition function wdll generate a correct canonical distribution for the free one-dimensional particle. The NosAHoover chains have successfully solved the pathology that had existed related to the condition Fj = 0. Let s investigate the application of the NosAHoover chains to a slightly more complex problem a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator with Hamiltonian,... [Pg.162]

Before going on to something as complex as an atom, let s look at a model problem in some detail. The first one is the one-dimensional particle-in-a-box problem. This turns out to be an excellent conceptual model for conjugated dye molecules (see Chapter 21) and also a model for trapped charged particles. The problem and its solutions are similar to the vibrating string just discussed. The potential term is shown graphically and mathematically in Fig. 7.1. [Pg.39]

Recall that in our one-dimensional particle in a box, we have one quantum number. In a three-dimensional box, we have three. In short, we have one quantum number per coordinate (actually, per squared coordinate or degree of freedom, but we ll leave that distinction for another time). Below, we look at the quantum numbers and assess their significance. [Pg.53]

So, we have completed our journey through basic quantum theory and the application to chemical structure. Is there some way that all of this material can be tied together in an application Of course, and we ll use extremes a simple quantum model (the one-dimensional particle-in-a-box) and a very large, complex dye molecule. I m sure that the particle-in-a-box, especially in one-dimension, seemed useless at the time we developed it. It turns out that it is an excellent model for conjugated (we ll see what that means in a moment) molecules. In short, the dye molecules constitute a case study in quantum mechanics and case studies are an excellent way to explore what we have learned in science or any other area of knowledge. [Pg.129]

If we wish to predict the absorption spectrum of a molecule, we must know the energy levels of the molecule. Sadly, the hydrogen atom is the only real atomic/molecular system for which an analytic solution is known. Luckily for us, for the proper choice of molecule, some of the simpler quantum mechanical models are valid. I guess that means we must select the molecule to fit the theory But our purpose here is to develop a case study, so we ll accept that and apply the one-dimensional particle-in-a-box model to a... [Pg.129]

SOLUTION. Let z be the distance from the plate measured from the surface. The one-dimensional particle transport rate is given by... [Pg.39]

As yet, our quick tour of quantum mechanics has featured the key ideas needed to examine the properties of systems involving only a single particle. However, if we are to generalize to the case in which we are asked to examine the quantum mechanics of more than one particle at a time, there is an additional idea that must supplement those introduced above, namely, the Pauli exclusion principle. This principle is at the heart of the regularities present in the periodic table. Though there are a number of different ways of stating the exclusion principle, we state it in words as the edict that no two particles may occupy the same quantum state. This principle applies to the subclass of particles known as fermions and characterized by half-integer spin. In the context of our one-dimensional particle in a box problem presented above, what the Pauli principle tells us is that if we wish to... [Pg.86]

As a specific realization of these ideas, consider the celebrated problem of the one-dimensional particle in a box already introduced earlier in the chapter. Our ambition is to examine this problem from the perspective of the finite element machinery introduced above. The problem is posed as follows. A particle is confined to the region between 0 and a with the proviso that within the well the potential V (x) vanishes. In addition, we assert the boundary condition that the wave function vanishes at the boundaries (i.e. V (0) = rfr (a) = 0). In this case, the Schrodinger equation is... [Pg.96]

We next discuss the physics implied by the formal limit of Eq. (A.29). For simplicity we will make use of a one-dimensional particle dynamics model, similar to that of Figure 3.1, to illustrate the main points. [Pg.232]

Comparison of these equations with that for the one-dimensional particle in the box shows that both the equation and the boundary conditions are the same. The solutions are therefore... [Pg.499]

Point out the similarities and differences between the one-dimensional particle-in-a-box and the harmonic-oscillator wave functions and energies. [Pg.90]

These are illustrated in Figure 8.28. The dotted lines follow the general contours of the wavefunctions, and it can be seen that these show some similarity with the one-dimensional particle-in-a-box wavefunctions, discussed in Chapter 2. [Pg.170]

Fortunately enough, there is a theory justifying this idea — quantum mechanics. Actually, in the full quantum-mechanical treatment, the one-dimensional particle K might be allowed the linear superpositions of the different positions, thus making the concept of the position (and consequently of trajectory ) physically meaningless. ... [Pg.222]

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