The cryophotoaggregation phenomenon was first observed for Ag atoms (112) entrapped in Ar at 10-12 K (see Fig. 14). The trick essentially involves narrow-band, continuous irradiation into the [Pg.101]

The copper system appears to behave similarly to the silver system, and it may be used here in order to illustrate the idea of selective, naked-cluster cryophotochemistry 150, 151). A typical series of optical-spectral traces that illustrate these effects for Cu atoms is given in Fig. 15, which shows the absorptions of isolated Cu atoms in the presence of small proportions of Cujj, and traces of CU3 molecules. Under these concentration conditions, the outcome of 300-nm, narrow-band photoexcitation of atomic Cu is photoaggregation up to the Cuj stage. The growth-decay behavior of the various cluster-absorptions allows unequivocal pinpointing of UV-visible, electronic transitions associated with Cuj and Cus 150). With the distribution of Cui,2.3 shown in Fig. 15, 370-nm, narrow-band excitation of Cu2 can be considered. Immediately apparent from these optical spectra is the growth (—10%) of the Cu atomic-resonance lines. Noticeable also is the concomitant [Pg.103]

Selective, trisilver, cryophotochemical transformations have also been observed that involve HOMO-LUMO visible excitation (420-440 nm, depending on the matrix support) (151). A typical series of optical traces that depict the outcome of Aga/Kr, 423-nm excitation at 10-12 K is illustrated in Fig. 16. These data show that Agg absorptions at 423/ 247 nm may be selectively photoannihilated simultaneously with the [Pg.104]

Relative Extinction-Coefficient Measurements for Naked Silver Clusters by Photoaggregation Techniques [Pg.106]

With the help of new experimental techniques (such as STM) and more sophisticated theoretical methodologies, many fascinating surface structures and mechanisms have been revealed with molecular detail. These combined efforts continue to elucidate new interesting features of surface chemistry. Developments of new theoretical techniques will facilitate the analysis of much larger, and therefore more realistic, clusters. Combined with periodic boundary conditions, sophisticated levels of theory, and dynamics and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics techniques, these efforts will advance the convergence of theory and experiment. [Pg.846]

In spite of the widespread recognition of the theoretical inadequacies of classical nucleation theories, attempts to formulate more realistic theories have met with limited success, in part because nucleation rate measurements are notoriously difficult to make. Consequently, the available data base with which to evaluate various theories is inadequate. Molecular level approaches would seem to hold promise of providing more rigorously acceptable theories without resorting to the use of uncertain bulk properties in treating clusters that are intrinsically molecular. Furthermore, new experimental techniques, such as molecular beams and cluster spectroscopy, make the properties of small clusters amenable to investigation at the molecular level. [Pg.279]

The exponential ansatz given in Eq. [31] is one of the central equations of coupled cluster theory. The exponentiated cluster operator, T, when applied to the reference determinant, produces a new wavefunction containing cluster functions, each of which correlates the motion of electrons within specific orbitals. If T includes contributions from all possible orbital groupings for the N-electron system (that is, T, T2, . , T ), then the exact wavefunction within the given one-electron basis may be obtained from the reference function. The cluster operators, T , are frequently referred to as excitation operators, since the determinants they produce from fl>o resemble excited states in Hartree-Fock theory. Truncation of the cluster operator at specific substi-tution/excitation levels leads to a hierarchy of coupled cluster techniques (e.g., T = Ti + f 2 CCSD T T + T2 + —> CCSDT, etc., where S, D, and... [Pg.42]

One might, of course, try to resolve the failures of the standard singlereference CC approaches at larger intemuclear separations in a bmte-force manner by including the triply excited, quadruply excited, pentuply excited, etc. clusters in a completely iterative fashion (a new programming technique developed by Kdllay and Suij 74) allows one to write efficient computer codes for CC methods with clusters of any rank). Unfortunately, the resulting... [Pg.38]

Otherwise, two unclustered points are placed in a new cluster. The procedure continues until all points end up in a single large cluster. The distance between two clusters is defined as the shortest distance between a point in the first cluster and a point in the second cluster. This technique will be exemplified for the similarity matrix from Table 5.5.3. [Pg.177]

This field has expanded very rapidly in just the last two years with the development of many new experimental techniques. The excitement continues. The nature of these new experimental probes has and will continue to significantly influence the development of the field. The ability to select a specific size cluster ion and study its properties is an important new tool. Photoelectron spectroscopy will provide new insight about the electronic structure of clusters as a function of cluster size. Magnetic deflection and electronic susceptibility experiments on neutral clusters and cluster adducts will also provide important information. Vibrational spectroscopy using a variety of different... [Pg.255]

Hierarchical clustering procedures iteratively partition the item set into disjointed subsets. There are top-down and bottom-up techniques. The top-down techniques partition can be into two or more subsets, and the number of subsets can be fixed or variable. The aim is to maximize the similarity of the items within the subset or to maximize the difference of the items between subsets. The bottom-up techniques work the other way around and build a hierarchy by assembling iteratively larger clusters from smaller clusters until the whole item set is contained in a single cluster. A popular hierarchical technique is nearest-neighbor clustering, a technique that works bottom up by iteratively joining two most similar clusters to a new cluster. [Pg.421]

On the other hand, cluster 18, which appears inert in the previous process, exhibits a particular reactivity, under pyrolytic conditions. In fact, when heated in the presence of the decarbonylation reagent Me3NO, it produces the new cluster [Ru6Se4(CO)i2(/t-dppm)2]. This hexanuclear species, shown in Fig. 12, clearly derives from the self-assembling of two cluster units with release of two carbonyl molecules in a sort of condensation process, whose final result is the formation of three new metal-metal bonds.The molecular structure of this cluster, solved by X-ray diffraction techniques, has only one precedent, namely that of [Os6S4(CO)i6], which was obtained by the photolysis of [Os3S2(CO)9]. ... [Pg.301]

Because the new DFT techniques had not yet been applied to cluster-model calculations, many preliminary tests had to be performed to eliminate most uncertainty factors. First of all, from the variety of DFT functionals and the basis sets proposed in the literature one must select the combination which performs best for the system studied. This usually means that a large set of tests must be performed for a small sample representing the system of interest in the cluster caleulations. In the simplest approach, these tests can be performed by assuming that the metal cluster is re-... [Pg.1162]

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