Methods that are based on making the fiinctional (T // T ) / ( T T ) stationary yield upper bounds to the lowest energy state having the synnnetry of the CSFs in T. The Cl and MCSCF methods are of this type. [Pg.2186]

Lengsfield B H III and Liu B 1981 A seeond order MCSCF method for large Cl expansions J. Chem. Phys. 75 478-80... [Pg.2196]

Werner H-J and Meyer W 1981 A quadratically convergent MCSCF method for the simultaneous optimization of several states J. Chem. Phys 74 5794... [Pg.2357]

To use direct dynamics for the study of non-adiabatic systems it is necessary to be able to efficiently and accurately calculate electronic wave functions for excited states. In recent years, density functional theory (DFT) has been gaining ground over traditional Hartree-Fock based SCF calculations for the treatment of the ground state of large molecules. Recent advances mean that so-called time-dependent DFT methods are now also being applied to excited states. Even so, at present, the best general methods for the treatment of the photochemistry of polyatomic organic molecules are MCSCF methods, of which the CASSCF method is particularly powerful. [Pg.299]

MCSCF methods describe a wave function by the linear combination of M configuration state functions (CSFs), with Cl coefficients, Ck,... [Pg.300]

Importantly for direct dynamics calculations, analytic gradients for MCSCF methods [124-126] are available in many standard quantum chemistiy packages. This is a big advantage as numerical gradients require many evaluations of the wave function. The evaluation of the non-Hellmann-Feynman forces is the major effort, and requires the solution of what are termed the coupled-perturbed MCSCF (CP-MCSCF) equations. The large memory requirements of these equations can be bypassed if a direct method is used [233]. Modem computer architectures and codes then make the evaluation of first and second derivatives relatively straightforward in this theoretical framework. [Pg.301]

Quantum chemical methods, exemplified by CASSCF and other MCSCF methods, have now evolved to an extent where it is possible to routinely treat accurately the excited electronic states of molecules containing a number of atoms. Mixed nuclear dynamics, such as swarm of trajectory based surface hopping or Ehrenfest dynamics, or the Gaussian wavepacket based multiple spawning method, use an approximate representation of the nuclear wavepacket based on classical trajectories. They are thus able to use the infoiination from quantum chemistry calculations required for the propagation of the nuclei in the form of forces. These methods seem able to reproduce, at least qualitatively, the dynamics of non-adiabatic systems. Test calculations have now been run using duect dynamics, and these show that even a small number of trajectories is able to produce useful mechanistic infomiation about the photochemistry of a system. In some cases it is even possible to extract some quantitative information. [Pg.311]

The multiconfigurational self-consistent field ( MCSCF) method in whiehthe expeetation value < T H T>/< T T>is treated variationally and simultaneously made stationary with respeet to variations in the Ci and Cy,i eoeffieients subjeet to the eonstraints that the spin-orbitals and the full N-eleetron waveflmetion remain normalized ... [Pg.483]

This characteristic is commonly referred to as the bracketing theorem (E. A. Hylleraas and B. Undheim, Z. Phys. 759 (1930) J. K. E. MacDonald, Phys. Rev. 43, 830 (1933)). These are strong attributes of the variational methods, as is the long and rich history of developments of analytical and computational tools for efficiently implementing such methods (see the discussions of the CI and MCSCF methods in MTC and ACP). [Pg.487]

The integral equation method is free of the disadvantages of the continuum model and simulation techniques mentioned in the foregoing, and it gives a microscopic picture of the solvent effect within a reasonable computational time. Since details of the RISM-SCF/ MCSCF method are discussed in the following section we here briefly sketch the reference interaction site model (RISM) theory. [Pg.419]

Now we have the tools in hand to tackle various problems in solvated molecules. In the following sections, we present our recent efforts to explore such phenomena by means of the RISM-SCF/MCSCF method. [Pg.422]

In this chapter, we have reviewed the RISM-SCF/MCSCF method, which combines electronic structure and liquid-state theories to deal with the chemistry of solutions. The ability... [Pg.436]

The Multi-configuration Self-consistent Field (MCSCF) method can be considered as a Cl where not only the coefficients in front of the determinants are optimized by the variational principle, but also the MOs used for constructing the determinants are made optimum. The MCSCF optimization is iterative just like the SCF procedure (if the multi-configuration is only one, it is simply HF). Since the number of MCSCF iterations required for achieving convergence tends to increase with the number of configurations included, the size of MCSCF wave function that can be treated is somewhat smaller than for Cl methods. [Pg.117]

RHF to UHF, or to a TCSCF, is almost pure static correlation. Increasing the number of configurations in an MCSCF will recover more and more of the dynamical correlation, until at the full Cl limit, the correlation treatment is exact. As mentioned above, MCSCF methods are mainly used for generating a qualitatively correct wave function, i.e. recovering the static part of the correlation. [Pg.119]

The Multi-Configuration Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) method includes configurations created by excitations of electrons within an active space. Both the coefficients ca of the expansion in terms of CSFs and the expansion coefficients of the... [Pg.290]

When the HF wave function gives a very poor description of the system, i.e. when nondynamical electron correlation is important, the multiconfigurational SCF (MCSCF) method is used. This method is based on a Cl expansion of the wave function in which both the coefficients of the Cl and those of the molecular orbitals are variationally determined. The most common approach is the Complete Active Space SCF (CASSCF) scheme, where the user selects the chemically important molecular orbitals (active space), within which a full Cl is done. [Pg.4]

The various response tensors are identified as terms in these series and are calculated using numerical derivatives of the energy. This method is easily implemented at any level of theory. Analytic derivative methods have been implemented using self-consistent-field (SCF) methods for a, ft and y, using multiconfiguration SCF (MCSCF) methods for ft and using second-order perturbation theory (MP2) for y". The response properties can also be determined in terms of sum-over-states formulation, which is derived from a perturbation theory treatment of the field operator — [iE, which in the static limit is equivalent to the results obtained by SCF finite field or analytic derivative methods. [Pg.16]

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