For many-electron systems such as atoms and molecules, it is obviously important that approximate wavefiinctions obey the same boundary conditions and symmetry properties as the exact solutions. Therefore, they should be antisynnnetric with respect to interchange of each pair of electrons. Such states can always be constmcted as linear combinations of products such as... [Pg.31]

For many electrons and nuclei, Ftakes the following fomi ... [Pg.222]

This tool, which they call pseudospectralmethods, promises to reduce the CPU, memory and disk storage requirements for many electronic structure calculations, thus pemiitting their application to much larger molecular systems. In addition to ongoing developments in the underlying theory and computer... [Pg.2184]

Sinanoglu O 1961 Many-electron theory of atoms and molecules Proc. US Natl Acad. Sc/. 47 1217-26... [Pg.2193]

Sinanoglu O 1962 Many-electron theory of atoms and moleoules I. Shells, eleotron pairs vs many-eleotron oorrelatlons J. Chem. Phys. 36 706-17... [Pg.2194]

Bartlett R J and Purvis G D 1978 Many-body perturbation theory coupled-pair many-electron theory and the importance of quadruple excitations for the correlation problem int. J. Quantum Chem. 14 561-81... [Pg.2198]

QMC teclmiques provide highly accurate calculations of many-electron systems. In variational QMC (VMC) [112, 113 and 114], the total energy of the many-electron system is calculated as the expectation value of the Hamiltonian. Parameters in a trial wavefiinction are optimized so as to find the lowest-energy state (modem... [Pg.2220]

Perdew J P and Zunger A 1981 Self-interaction correction to density-functional approximations for many-electron systems Phys. Rev. B 23 5048... [Pg.2230]

Because of the quantum mechanical Uncertainty Principle, quantum m echanics methods treat electrons as indistinguishable particles, This leads to the Paiili Exclusion Pnn ciple, which states that the many-electron wave function—which depends on the coordinates of all the electrons—must change sign whenever two electrons interchange positions. That IS, the wave function must be antisymmetric with respect to pair-wise permutations of the electron coordinates. [Pg.34]

NtofUer C and M S Plesset 1934. Note on an Approximate Treatment for Many-Electron Systems. Physical Review 46 618-622. [Pg.181]

Perdew J P and A Zunger 1981. Self-Interaction Correction to Density-Functional Approximations for Many-Electron Systems. Physical Review B23 5048-5079. [Pg.181]

By extension of Exercise 6-1, the Hamiltonian for a many-electron molecule has a sum of kinetic energy operators — V, one for each electron. Also, each electron moves in the potential field of the nuclei and all other electrons, each contiibuting a potential energy V,... [Pg.174]

The true value of tk for a many-electron atom or a molecule is unknown. If we could set it equal ( expand it) to a linear combination of an infinite number of basis functions, each defined in a space of infinite dimensions, we could carry out an exact calculation of (k. Such a set of basis functions would be a complete set. [Pg.242]

Generalize the solution of Exercise 9-1 to the case of a many-electron wave function [Eq. (9-29)] yielding Pm permutations. [Pg.272]

For both types of orbitals, the coordinates r, 0, and (j) refer to the position of the electron relative to a set of axes attached to the center on which the basis orbital is located. Although Slater-type orbitals (STOs) are preferred on fundamental grounds (e.g., as demonstrated in Appendices A and B, the hydrogen atom orbitals are of this form and the exact solution of the many-electron Schrodinger equation can be shown to be of this form (in each of its coordinates) near the nuclear centers), STOs are used primarily for atomic and linear-molecule calculations because the multi-center integrals < XaXbl g I XcXd > (each... [Pg.466]

One of the advantages of this method is that it breaks the many-electron Schrodinger equation into many simpler one-electron equations. Each one-electron equation is solved to yield a single-electron wave function, called an orbital, and an energy, called an orbital energy. The orbital describes the behavior of an electron in the net field of all the other electrons. [Pg.19]

The most difficult part of relativistic calculations is that a large amount of CPU time is necessary. This makes the problem more difficult because even non-relativistic calculations on elements with many electrons are CPU-intensive. The following lists relativistic calculations in order of increasing reliability and thus increasing CPU time requirements ... [Pg.264]

Section 1 1 A review of some fundamental knowledge about atoms and electrons leads to a discussion of wave functions, orbitals, and the electron con figurations of atoms Neutral atoms have as many electrons as the num ber of protons m the nucleus These electrons occupy orbitals m order of increasing energy with no more than two electrons m any one orbital The most frequently encountered atomic orbitals m this text are s orbitals (spherically symmetrical) and p orbitals ( dumbbell shaped)... [Pg.47]

Consider what happens to the many-electron wave function when two electrons have identical coordinates. Since the electrons have the same coordinates, they are indistinguishable the wave function should be the same if they trade positions. Yet the Exclusion Principle requires that the wave function change sign. Only a zero value for the wave function can satisfy these two conditions, identity of coordinates and an antisymmetric wave function. Eor the hydrogen molecule, the antisymmetric wave function is a(l)b(l)-... [Pg.35]

The simplest many-electron wave function that satisfies the Exclusion Principle is a product of N different one-electron functions that have been antisymmetrized, or written as a determinant. Here, N is the number of electrons (or valence electrons) in the molecule. HyperChem uses this form of the wave function for most semi-empirical and ab initio calculations. Exceptions involve using the Configuration Interaction option (see page 119). HyperChem computes one-electron functions, termed molecular spin orbitals, by relatively simple integration and summation calculations. The many-electron wave function, which has N terms (the number of terms in the determinant), never needs to be evaluated. [Pg.36]

To use HyperChem for calculations, you specify the total molecular charge and spin multiplicity (see Charge, Spin, and Excited State on page 119). The calculation selects the appropriate many-electron wave function with the correct number of alpha or beta electrons. You don t need to specify the spin function of each orbital. [Pg.36]

Raffenetti, R.C. Pre-processing two-electron integrals for efficient utilization in many-electron self-consistent field calculations. Chem. Phys. LeUera 20 335-338, 1973. [Pg.114]

To consider the question in more detail, you need to consider spin eigenfunctions. If you have a Hamiltonian X and a many-electron spin operator A, then the wave function T for the system is ideally an eigenfunction of both operators ... [Pg.231]

This is simplified for titrations involving EDTA where the stoichiometry is always 1 1 regardless of how many electron pairs are involved in the formation of the metal-ligand complex. [Pg.328]

The answer, very often, is that they do not obtain any intensity. Many such vibronic transitions, involving non-totally symmetric vibrations but which are allowed by symmetry, can be devised in many electronic band systems but, in practice, few have sufficient intensity to be observed. For those that do have sufficient intensity the explanation first put forward as to how it is derived was due to Herzberg and Teller. [Pg.281]

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