NAMD 2 added several new design goals. First, parallel performance needed to be increased through more parallelism and better load balancing. Second, communication efficiency needed to be improved without adding application-... [Pg.476]

In order to improve parallelism and load balancing, a hybrid force-spatial decomposition scheme was adopted in NAMD 2. Rather than decomposing the nonbonded computation into regions of space or pairwise atomic interactions, the basic unit of work was chosen to be interactions between atoms... [Pg.477]

Load balancing can then be achieved in NAMD 2 by moving compute objects and patches between nodes. But what if a compute object and a patch it depends on are on different nodes Compute objects individually communicating with off-node patches would generate a huge amount of redundant communication. Therefore, patches are represented on other nodes by proxy patches, which implement the same interface as home patches for dealing with compute objects and handling dependencies but receive coordinates from and... [Pg.478]

This algorithm is an improvement over the algorithms described in the previous subsections. The idea behind this algorithm is fairly simple. To ensure load balance, the rows of the force matrix will be allocated in such a way that the load on all processor is equal. [Pg.488]

As before, let Cj, denote tbe cost of force computation on processor i, 0 < i < P — 1). Processor i is assigned U rows of the force matrix and for load balance - , lp will satisfy h

Lastly, Table 6 describes the assignment of rows to processors for some typical cases, and the load in each case (indicating the number of force interactions computed by each processors in the corresponding case). These are based on equations in Section 3. Several important points can be noted from the results shown in the table. Firstly, it can be observed that in the 4 processor case, processor P3 computes half the maximum number of rows in the force matrix which leads to a load balanced assignment. This would not be the case if processors were assigned equal number of rows. Moreover, when the number of processors is increased from 4 to 16, the load on each processor reduces by a factor of 4, but is still equal on every processor. [Pg.490]

Reverse power relay LBR-A - Load balance relay active LBR-R - Load balance relay reactive... [Pg.527]

The choice of a turboexpander load may be influenced by the desire to optimize refrigeration. In other words, a dynamometer load may be chosen over a generator load due to speed considerations. Additionally, there are other constraints imposed on optimal design. Factors such as impeller peripheral velocity (tip speed), bearing design, axial load balance, material selection, and manufacturing methods (which have greatly improved in the recent decades) all have an influence. [Pg.59]

Power system planners need to consider how the costs associated with electric vehicles should he passed along to consumers. Fortunately from a load balancing perspective, it is likely that most EV charging will occur in off-peak periods. Charging in off-peak periods would reduce utility costs and therefore should allow utilities to reduce customer rates, but this would require time of day metering that is not available in most service areas. [Pg.441]

The system of equations, including the Reynolds, him thickness, load balance, viscosity-pressure, and viscosity modih-cation equations, is simultaneously solved with the help of a multilevel technique described by Venner and Lubrecht with modihcations to take account of the variation in viscosity. The invariant parameters used in the computation are Z = 0.67, = 226 GPa, o = 0.04 Pa s, p j = 0.46 GPa, R... [Pg.69]

The other option is weighing. Since low-tech glassware or disposable pipettes could continue to be used, obtaining a tare and a total weight on a top-loading balance would add only a few seconds for each sample, but inherently be much more accurate and precise than any operation involving just pipettes and graduated flasks. s... [Pg.176]

Bzik, T. J., Henderson, P. B., and Hobbs, J. R, Increasing the Precision and Accuracy of Top-Loading Balances Application of Experimental Design, Anal. Chem. 70, 1998, 58-63. [Pg.405]

Proper load balance is a major consideration for efficient parallel computation. Consider a job distributed over two processors (0 and 1) in such a way that wall clock time is reduced considerably. Nevertheless, it still may be that processor 0 has more work to perform so that processor 1 spends much time waiting for processor 0 to finish up a particular task. It is easy to see that, in this case, the scaling will, in general, not be linear because processor 1 is not performing an equal share of the work. [Pg.22]

Electronic analytical and top loading balances, Mettler or equivalent Sample chopper, Hobart, or equivalent... [Pg.1092]

Balances with few such significant figures to the right of the decimal point (zero to three) are often referred to as ordinary balances or top-loading balances (precision is 100 to 1 mg). A top-loading balance is an electronic ordinary balance with a pan on the top, as shown in Figure 3.3. The electronic... [Pg.38]

FIGURE 3.3 Left, a top-loading balance. Right, an analytical balance. [Pg.39]

When a weight measurement enters directly into the calculation of a quantitative analysis result that is to be reported to four significant figures, is an ordinary top-loading balance satisfactory for this measurement Explain. [Pg.61]

Obtain samples of various foods and weigh approximately 1 g of each on a top-loading balance. Record and label each weight (as to the type of food) in your notebook Also in your notebook, give each an identifying number. Place each sample in a 100-mL round-bottom flask labeled with the identifying number. [Pg.481]

A top-loading balance is an electronic balance with the sample pan on the top. It is not enclosed, which means that it is capable of measuring only to the nearest hundredth of a gram. See Figure 3.3. [Pg.505]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.342 ]

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