Although still used the Langmuir equation is only of limited value since in practice surfaces are energetic inhomogeneous and interactions between adsorbed species often occur. [Pg.234]

The compounds have limited value as dye-stufTs intermediates, nitrobenzenef CeHjNOj, PhN02-Colourless, highly refractive liquid with characteristic smell m.p. b.p. 21 TC. [Pg.277]

The smallest difference of the optical density which the human eye can discern is approximately AD = 0.01 at density 2-2.5 provided the two areas with this density difference are of homogeneous density ( no noise) and of sufficient size, respectively. The limiting values of the granularity of the classes Cl to C6 of EN 584-1 vary between 0.018 to 0.039, ... [Pg.551]

Additional information can be obtained, if one calculates the smallest thickness difference Ad of sf eel - for instance the depth of a crack - which can be discerned on a radiograph whose granularity is just as high as the limiting value a, of the respective class of the standard EN 584-1. For this estimation the well known relation for the (optical) density difference AD (visible contrast) which results from a difference of thickness Ad in steel is used ... [Pg.551]

The base of this estimation is the signal to noise ratio. The lowest signal to noise ratio S/N which is necessary as a minimum to discern a signal from noise is S/N = 2 1 (4). Referring to the limiting values for the granularity Oj, of the film system classes the smallest density difference AD of an defect which would just be visible should be at least two times greater than On. [Pg.551]

Taking all these conditions into account the estimation for the minimal thickness difference of steel which could be perceptible at granularity levels equal to the limiting values for granularity in EN 584-1 results in the values given in Table 1. [Pg.552]

The interpretated value of crack depth hi is calculated by means of the algorithm of solving inverse task, the parameters I or T have limit values correspondingly. [Pg.649]

The component of the relative measuring error of crack depth measuring is calculated because real parameter p is replaced by its limit value ... [Pg.649]

If the surface tension of a liquid is lowered by the addition of a solute, then, by the Gibbs equation, the solute must be adsorbed at the interface. This adsorption may amount to enough to correspond to a monomolecular layer of solute on the surface. For example, the limiting value of in Fig. Ill-12 gives an area per molecule of 52.0 A, which is about that expected for a close-packed... [Pg.80]

The deviation of Gibbs monolayers from the ideal two-dimensional gas law may be treated by plotting xA// 7 versus x, as shown in Fig. III-15c. Here, for a series of straight-chain alcohols, one finds deviations from ideality increasing with increasing film pressure at low x values, however, the limiting value of unity for irAfRT is approached. [Pg.83]

Returning to Eq. XI-4, wiA C2 replacing 02, at low concentrations 112 will be proportional to C2 with a slope n b. At sufficiently high concentrations /I2 approaches the limiting value n . Thus is a measure of the capacity of the adsorbent and b of the intensity of the adsorption. In terms of the ideal model, nf should not depend on temperature, while b should show an exponential... [Pg.392]

It is manifestly impossible to measure heat capacities down to exactly 0 K, so some kind of extrapolation is necessary. Unless were to approach zero as T approaches zero, the limiting value of C T would not be finite and the first integral in equation (A2.1.71) would be infinite. Experiments suggested that C might... [Pg.369]

Thus the ratio of S/V can be detennined by the limiting value of l(q)q. We will discuss the Porod approximation next. [Pg.1403]

This then is the limiting radius ratio for six nearest neighbours— when the anion is said to have a co-ordination number of 6. Similar calculations give the following limiting values ... [Pg.36]

The smaller the value of n (the resonance order), the larger the timestep of disturbance. For example, the linear stability for Verlet is uiAt < 2 for second-order resonance, while IM has no finite limit for stability of this order. Third-order resonance is limited by /3 ( J 1.72) for Verlet compared to about double, or 2 /3 (fa 3.46), for IM. See Table 1 for limiting values of wAt corresponding to interesting combinations of a and n. This table also lists timestep restrictions relevant to biomolecular dynamics, assuming the fastest motion has period of around 10 fs (appropriate for an O-H stretch, for example). [Pg.242]

Besides the expressions for a surface derived from the van der Waals surface (see also the CPK model in Section 2.11.2.4), another model has been established to generate molecular surfaces. It is based on the molecular distribution of electronic density. The definition of a Limiting value of the electronic density, the so-called isovalue, results in a boundary layer (isoplane) [187]. Each point on this surface has an identical electronic density value. A typical standard value is about 0.002 au (atomic unit) to represent electronic density surfaces. [Pg.129]

The values of x and s vary from sample set to sample set. However, as N increases, they may be expected to become more and more stable. Their limiting values, for very large N, are numbers characteristic of the frequency distribution, and are referred to as the population mean and the population variance, respectively. [Pg.192]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.1499 , Pg.1507 , Pg.1509 ]

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