As a first step in the direction outlined here some manufacturers and BAM last year discussed the problems and the possible procedures of such a system of quality assurance. As a result of this meeting round robin tests for the harmonization of the measurements of film system parameters and a possible procedure of surveillance of the quality of film systems were proposed. Closely related to these the BAM offers to perform the classification of film systems. But as during the production of films variations of the properties of the different batches cannot be avoided, the results of measurements of films of a single batch will be restricted to this charge, while only the measurements and mean of several batches of a film type will give representative values of its properties. This fact is taken into account already in section 4 of the standard EN 584-1 which can be interpreted as a kind of continuous surveillance. In accordance with this standard a film system caimot be certified on the base of measurements of a single emulsion only. [Pg.553]

In the preceding derivation, the repulsion between overlapping double layers has been described by an increase in the osmotic pressure between the two planes. A closely related but more general concept of the disjoining pressure was introduced by Deijaguin [30]. This is defined as the difference between the thermodynamic equilibrium state pressure applied to surfaces separated by a film and the pressure in the bulk phase with which the film is equilibrated (see section VI-5). [Pg.181]

After reviewing various earlier explanations for an adsorption maximum, Trogus, Schechter, and Wade [244] proposed perhaps the most satisfactory one so far (see also Ref. 243). Qualitatively, an adsorption maximum can occur if the surfactant consists of at least two species (which can be closely related) what is necessary is that species 2 (say) preferentially forms micelles (has a lower CMC) relative to species 1 and also adsorbs more strongly. The adsorbed state may also consist of aggregates or hemi-micelles, and even for a pure component the situation can be complex (see Section XI-6 for recent AFM evidence of surface micelle formation and [246] for polymeric surface micelles). Similar adsorption maxima found in adsorption of nonionic surfactants can be attributed to polydispersity in the surfactant chain lengths [247], Surface-active impuri-... [Pg.487]

Many complex systems have been spread on liquid interfaces for a variety of reasons. We begin this chapter with a discussion of the behavior of synthetic polymers at the liquid-air interface. Most of these systems are linear macromolecules however, rigid-rod polymers and more complex structures are of interest for potential optoelectronic applications. Biological macromolecules are spread at the liquid-vapor interface to fabricate sensors and other biomedical devices. In addition, the study of proteins at the air-water interface yields important information on enzymatic recognition, and membrane protein behavior. We touch on other biological systems, namely, phospholipids and cholesterol monolayers. These systems are so widely and routinely studied these days that they were also mentioned in some detail in Chapter IV. The closely related matter of bilayers and vesicles is also briefly addressed. [Pg.537]

A classical Hamiltonian is obtained from the spectroscopic fitting Hamiltonian by a method that has come to be known as the Heisenberg correspondence [46], because it is closely related to the teclmiques used by Heisenberg in fabricating the fomi of quantum mechanics known as matrix mechanics. [Pg.68]

An approach closely related to the pseudopotential is the orthogonalizedplane wave method [29]. In this method, the basis is taken to be as follows ... [Pg.112]

The translational linear momentum is conserved for an isolated molecule in field free space and, as we see below, this is closely related to the fact that the molecular Hamiltonian connmites with all... [Pg.163]

It turns out that there is another branch of mathematics, closely related to tire calculus of variations, although historically the two fields grew up somewhat separately, known as optimal control theory (OCT). Although the boundary between these two fields is somewhat blurred, in practice one may view optimal control theory as the application of the calculus of variations to problems with differential equation constraints. OCT is used in chemical, electrical, and aeronautical engineering where the differential equation constraints may be chemical kinetic equations, electrical circuit equations, the Navier-Stokes equations for air flow, or Newton s equations. In our case, the differential equation constraint is the TDSE in the presence of the control, which is the electric field interacting with the dipole (pemianent or transition dipole moment) of the molecule [53, 54, 55 and 56]. From the point of view of control theory, this application presents many new features relative to conventional applications perhaps most interesting mathematically is the admission of a complex state variable and a complex control conceptually, the application of control teclmiques to steer the microscopic equations of motion is both a novel and potentially very important new direction. [Pg.268]

The interaction between ions of the same sign is assumed to be a pure hard sphere repulsion for r < a. It follows from simple steric considerations that an exact solution will predict dimerization only if i < a/2, but polymerization may occur for o/2 < L = o. However, an approximate solution may not reveal the fiill extent of polymerization that occurs in a more accurate or exact theory. Cummings and Stell [ ] used the model to study chemical association of uncharged atoms. It is closely related to the model for adliesive hard spheres studied by Baxter [70]. [Pg.500]

A closely-related method for detemiining free energy differences is characterized as themiodynamic integration. The configrirational free energy of an intemiediate state... [Pg.514]

We now turn to a mean-field description of these models, which in the language of the binary alloy is the Bragg-Williams approximation and is equivalent to the Ciirie-Weiss approxunation for the Ising model. Botli these approximations are closely related to the van der Waals description of a one-component fluid, and lead to the same classical critical exponents a = 0, (3 = 1/2, 8 = 3 and y = 1. [Pg.529]

The autocatalator model is in many ways closely related to the FONT system, which has a single first-order exothennic reaction step obeying an Arrhenius temperature dependence and for which the role of the autocatalyst is taken by the temperature of the system. An extension of this is tlie Sal nikov model which supports tliennokinetic oscillations in combustion-like systems [48]. This has the fonn ... [Pg.1115]

Once a slice has been selected and excited, it is necessary to encode the ensuing NMR signal with the coordinates of nuclei within the slice. For each coordinate (x andy) this is achieved by one of two very closely related means, frequency encoding or phase encoding [1]. In this section we consider the fonner and in the next, the latter. In tlie section after that we show how the two are combined in the most coimnon imaging experiment. [Pg.1524]

The balance between these different types of bonds has a strong bearing on the resulting ordering or disordering of the surface. For adsorbates, the relative strength of adsorbate-substrate and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions is particularly important. Wlien adsorbate-substrate interactions dominate, well ordered overlayer structures are induced that are arranged in a superlattice, i.e. a periodicity which is closely related to that of the substrate lattice one then speaks of commensurate overlayers. This results from the tendency for each adsorbate to seek out the same type of adsorption site on the surface, which means that all adsorbates attempt to bond in the same maimer to substrate atoms. [Pg.1758]

Relatively strong adsorbate-adsorbate interactions have a different effect the adsorbates attempt to first optimize the bonding between them, before trying to satisfy their bonding to the substrate. This typically results in close-packed overlayers with an internal periodicity that it is not matched, or at least is poorly matched, to the substrate lattice. One thus finds well ordered overlayers whose periodicity is generally not closely related to the substrate lattice tiiis leads... [Pg.1759]

The classical counterpart of resonances is periodic orbits [91, 95, 96, 97 and 98]. For example, a purely classical study of the H+H2 collinear potential surface reveals that near the transition state for the H+H2 H2+H reaction there are several trajectories (in R and r) that are periodic. These trajectories are not stable but they nevertheless affect strongly tire quantum dynamics. A study of tlie resonances in H+H2 scattering as well as many other triatomic systems (see, e.g., [99]) reveals that the scattering peaks are closely related to tlie frequencies of the periodic orbits and the resonance wavefiinctions are large in the regions of space where the periodic orbits reside. [Pg.2308]

Closely related to tliese experimental approaches are optimal control procedures, in which one simulates... [Pg.2321]

An alternative, and closely related, approach is the augmented Hessian method [25]. The basic idea is to interpolate between the steepest descent method far from the minimum, and the Newton-Raphson method close to the minimum. This is done by adding to the Hessian a constant shift matrix which depends on the magnitude of the gradient. Far from the solution the gradient is large and, consequently, so is the shift d. One... [Pg.2339]

Aq becomes asymptotically a g/ g, i.e., the steepest descent fomuila with a step length 1/a. The augmented Hessian method is closely related to eigenvector (mode) following, discussed in section B3.5.5.2. The main difference between rational fiinction and tmst radius optimizations is that, in the latter, the level shift is applied only if the calculated step exceeds a threshold, while in the fonuer it is imposed smoothly and is automatically reduced to zero as convergence is approached. [Pg.2339]

The EF algoritlnn [ ] is based on the work of Cerjan and Miller [ ] and, in particular, Simons and coworkers [70,1Y. It is closely related to the augmented Hessian (rational fiinction) approach[25]. We have seen in section B3.5.2.5 that this is equivalent to addmg a constant level shift (damping factor) to the diagonal elements of the approximate Hessian H. An appropriate level shift effectively makes the Hessian positive definite, suitable for minimization. [Pg.2351]

Many properties of colloidal suspensions, such as their stability, rheology, and phase behaviour, are closely related to the interactions between the suspended particles. The background of the most important contributing factors to these interactions is discussed in this section. [Pg.2674]

Deposition by chemical reaction is a vast field tliat cannot be surveyed in tire limited space here. Two particular examples have been selected because tliey illustrate tire close relation between fundamental surface chemistry research... [Pg.2937]

Magnetic circular dicliroism (MCD) is independent of, and thus complementary to, the natural CD associated with chirality of nuclear stmcture or solvation. Closely related to the Zeeman effect, MCD is most often associated with orbital and spin degeneracies in cliromophores. Chemical applications are thus typically found in systems where a chromophore of high symmetry is present metal complexes, poriihyrins and other aromatics, and haem proteins are... [Pg.2966]

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