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** Chemical reaction rates activated complex theory **

The activated complex theory of reaction rates in dilute gas mixtures is based on the statistical mechanical theory of chemical equilibrium. [Pg.1081]

The activated complex theory has been developed extensively for chemical reactions as well as for deformation processes. The full details of the theory are not necessary for us. Instead, it is sufficient to note that k can be written as [Pg.91]

The situation for a chemical, as opposed to an electrochemical, reaction is considered first. Simplified activated complex theory assumes an Arrhenius-type dependence of the forward rate constant, kf, on the chemical free energy of activation, AC, according to the following equation [Pg.34]

Here we treat two specific examples. First we consider the hard-sphere model for chemical reaction and show that activated complex theory leads to a k2, T) identical with that calculated using kinetic theory arguments in Section 8.4. We then consider the molecular example [Pg.282]

A more detailed form for writing the equation for parameter 8y can be based on the activated complex theory. The said theory predicts the following dependence for the rate of elementary chemical reaction i j [Pg.22]

The effect of pressure on reaction rate constant k can be explained by the activated complex theory. The theory postulates that the elementary chemical reactions occur via a transition state, such as A + B -> products, in which the reactants and transition state are assumed to be in equilibrium. The transition state (activated complex), Ivt, is defined as the state of the maximum energy along the reaction path reaction coordinate). The rate constant can be expressed as follows, based on the activated complex theory, [Pg.119]

A quantification of DF to describe the transition from chemically-controlled to diffusion-controlled kinetics is based on the Rabinowitch equation, which is derived fi-om the activated complex theory [39,105-107], Whether a chemical reaction is controlled by diffusion depends on the relative time to diffuse and the time needed for the intrinsic chemical reaction resulting in bond formation [Pg.131]

The simple collision theory and the activated complex theory have appeared as two alternative treatments of chemical reaction kinetics. It is clear, however, that they represent only two different kinds of approximation to an exact collision theory based either on classical or quantum mechanics. During the past few years considerable progress has been achieved in the colllsional treatment of bimole-cular reactions /7,8/. For more complicated reactions, however, the collision theory yields untractable expressions so that the activated complex theory provides a unique general method for an estimation of the rates of these reactions. Therefore, it is very important to determine well the limits of its validity. [Pg.4]

Nevertheless, cluster models are still broadly used with models with up to 200 atoms, placed in a dielectric cavity and treated at the highest possible QM level, which so far has mainly meant hybrid density functional theory (DFT) [40-42]. The most common application of these models is on systems where the chemical reaction implies complex electronic states as the ones appeared in enzymes containing transition metals where more than one electronic state is involved and high level QM methods are required to describe the reaction. Nevertheless, due to the computational cost, such studies have embraced topics devoted to the modeUing of the first coordination sphere of the active site to perform an exploration of the molecular mechanism solving problems of stereoselectivity [42], up to the [Pg.388]

As a result of the development of quantum mechanics, another theoretical approach to chemical reaction rates has been developed which gives a deeper understanding of the reaction process. It is known as the Absolute Reaction Rate Theory orthe Transition State Theory or, more commonly, as the Activated Complex Theory (ACT), developed by H. Eyring and M. Polanyi in 1935. According to ACT, the bimolecular reaction between two molecules A2 and B2 passes through the formation of the so-called activated complex which then decomposes to yield the product AB, as illustrated below [Pg.68]

Collision state theory is useful for gas-phase reactions of simple atoms and molecules, but it cannot adequately predict reaction rates for more complex molecules or molecules in solution. Another approach, called transition-state theory (or activated-complex theory), was developed by Henry Eyring and others in the 1930s. Because it is applicable to a wide range of reactions, transition-state theory has become the major theoretical tool in the prediction of chemical kinetics. [Pg.742]

Transition-state theory is one of the earliest attempts to explain chemical reaction rates from first principles. It was initially developed by Eyring [124] and Evans and Polayni [122,123], The conventional transition-state theory (CTST) discussed here provides a relatively straightforward method to estimate reaction rate constants, particularly the preexponential factor in an Arrhenius expression. This theory is sometimes also known as activated complex theory. More advanced versions of transition-state theory have also been developed over the years [401], [Pg.415]

The first of the theoretical chapters (Chapter 9) treats approaches to the calculation of thermal rate constants. The material is familiar—activated complex theory, RRKM theory of unimolecular reaction, Debye theory of diffusion-limited reaction—and emphasizes how much information can be correlated on the basis of quite limited models. In the final chapt, the dynamics of single-collision chemistry is analyzed within a highly simplified framework the model, based on classical mechanics, collinear collision geometries, and naive potential-energy surfaces, illuminates many of the features that account for chemical reactivity. [Pg.373]

Our approach is very simple, but it has the virtue of providing exact general rate expressions which are closely related to the traditional formulations of both the collision and activated complex theory as given by equations (3A) and (5A), respectively. Thus, it directly yields precise definitions of both the quantum and classical (or semiclassical) corrections to be introduced in these equations, as well as in the properly adiabatic formulations of transition state theory also discussed in this book. We hope, therefore, that the unified treatment presented will contribute to a full elucidation of the relations between the various theories of chemical reaction rates. [Pg.7]

Many theories of kinetics have been constructed to illuminate the factors controlling reaction rates, and a prime goal of these theories is to predict the values of A and for specific chemical systems in terms of quantitative molecular properties. An important general theory that has been adapted for electrode kinetics is the transition state theory, which is also known as the absolute rate theory or the activated complex theory. [Pg.90]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.3 , Pg.4 , Pg.8 , Pg.66 ]

** Chemical reaction rates activated complex theory **

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