At the same time, the absolute maximum rate is the same as it was before, regard-less of total pressure. This is clear from the fundamental expression given in equation 12.3, where we see that k, is a function of temperature and site concentration but independent of reactor total pressure. At the same time, the maximum product of the two 6 fractions describing surface coverage, whose sum cannot exceed 1, is A Thus for each temperature there is an absolute maximum rate available at a specific feed ratio and pressure. [Pg.273]

We see from equations 12.1 and 12.3 that the net activation energy for most conditions away from the absolute maximum rate lies between ... [Pg.274]

Equation 12-5 gives an onset temperature that eorresponds to a time-to-maximum rate t. (min) using a sueeessive substitution solution proeedure. An initial guess of T = 350 K for the right side of Equation 12-5 will give a solution value of on the left side of Equation 12-5 within 1% or on an absolute basis 3°C. Con-vergenee is reaehed within several sueeessive substitution iterations. [Pg.924]

Calculations predict that the lowest state of PN has an open-shell electronic configuration." " The Salem-Rowland Rule for ISC promoted by spin-orbit coupling (SOC) predicts that singlet to triplet relaxation will have its maximum rate when the singlet state is closed-shell. This is the case with diaryl carbenes where the absolute rate constants of ISC are in the order of Michl has recently pointed out the importance of donor-... [Pg.271]

The induction time is the time involved between the instant where the sample reaches its initial temperature and the instant where the reaction rate reaches its maximum. In practice, two types of induction times must be considered the isothermal and the adiabatic. The isothermal induction time is the time a reaction takes to reach its maximum rate under isothermal conditions. It can typically be measured by DSC or DTA. This assumes that the heat release rate can be removed by an appropriate heat exchange system. Since the induction time is the result of a reaction producing the catalyst, the isothermal induction time is an exponential function of temperature. Thus, a plot of its natural logarithm, as a function of the inverse absolute temperature, delivers a straight line. The adiabatic induction time corresponds to the time to maximum rate under adiabatic conditions (TMRJ). It can be measured by adiabatic calorimetry or calculated from kinetic data. This time is valid if the temperature is left increasing at the instantaneous heat release rate. In general, adiabatic induction time is shorter than isothermal induction time. [Pg.313]

The rate constants and empirical rate laws shown in Table I describe the experimental observations, but they need further interpretation in order to extract the maximum amount of information from them. Adopting the language of the absolute reaction rate theory (16), we assume that for each rate-determining step the reactant species are in quasiequilibrium with the activated complex and that the rate of this step is proportional to the concentration of the activated complex. Often, rapid equilibria preceed the actual rate-determining step these can be added to the actual activation process to give a net activation process written in terms of the principal species in the solution ... [Pg.274]

There are several cases where it is necessary to determine the optimum conditions for maximum production rate (1) when the demand for a product exceeds the production capacity, and (2) when the capital cost of the purification is significant compared to the operating costs and to the cost of the unrecovered crude. As a matter of fact, sales, hence production, can rarely be kept for a long period at any predetermined level. There must be alternative strategies to adjust the production rate and the recovery yield, while minimizing costs. The absolute maximum production rate can be looked for, or the maximum production rate with a recovery peld constraint. Other combinations will permit the minimization of the production costs. Alternatively, since we know from the literature [12] that the costs associated with the loss, the processing, and the regeneration of the solvent used often accoimt for nearly 40% of the total production costs, we can choose as... [Pg.861]

Figure 6 shows the first direct measurements of absolute vaporization rate of crystalline D2O and Fl20 ice at temperatures above -40 obtained in our FTDS experiments. Different symbols represent results from experiments with ice films of distinct thermal history and thickness. The solid lines in the Fig. 6 show the vaporization rate values calculated from ice equilibrium vapor pressure under the assumption that the mass accommodation coefficient is equal to unity, i.e. that the vaporization rate is equal to the maximum equilibrium rate given. The dotted lines show the range of possible desorption rate values predicted by the simple MP mechanism. [Pg.80]

The absolute values of the four maximum rate constants, A max depend on the theory applied here. The rate constant k is a second-order rate constant with a dimension of cm s, provided that the concentration of the carrier density and of the redox system are given in units of cm, and k is related to the local rate constant k y [s" ] by... [Pg.173]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.179 , Pg.186 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.179 , Pg.186 ]

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