In the second step, the step on which we will focus in this chapter, the phosphorus, P, is reacted with oxygen in air to form tetraphosphorus decoxide, P4O10 [Pg.330]

The third and final step is the reaction of P4O10 with water to form phosphoric acid [Pg.330]

Your colleagues who are responsible for the first step, the production of pure phosphorus, estimate that they can supply you with 1.09 X lO kg of phosphorus per day. The production manager asks you to figure out the maximum mass of P4O10 that can be made from this amount of phosphorus. The tools described in this chapter, in combination with the unit analysis method, enable you to satisfy this request. [Pg.330]

We mentioned above that a typical problem for a Boltzman Machine is to obtain a set of weights such that the states of the visible neurons take on some desired probability distribution. For example, the task may he to teach the net to learn that the first component of an Ai-component input vector has value +1 40% of the time. To accompli.sh this, a Boltzman Machine uses the familiar gradient-descent technique, but not on the energy of the net instead, it maximizes the relative entropy of the system. [Pg.534]

To illustrate the foregoing points, here is a typical problem. [Pg.98]

A second major use of sulfuric acid of commerce is in reactions with bases. In laboratory use it is diluted to a much lower concentration and can be used as a standard acid. A typical problem would be the titration of a base solution of unknown concentration using a sulfuric acid solution of known concentration. For example, What is the concentration of a sodium hydroxide solution if 25.43 ml of the NaOH solution just reacts with 18.51 ml of 0.1250 M HiSOt (to produce a neutral solution) ... [Pg.230]

In the following discussion, we present how one confronts this problem and the calculations needed to produce the desired results. The following Table, presents a typical problem that one encounters in TGA and the calculations needed to produce the desired results. [Pg.387]

The modeling of complex solids has greatly advanced since the advent, around 1960, of the finite element method [196], Here the material is divided into a number of subdomains, termed elements, with associated nodes. The elements are considered to consist of materials, the constitutive equations of which are well known, and, upon change of the system, the nodes suffer nodal displacements and concomitant generalized nodal forces. The method involves construction of a global stiffness matrix that comprises the contributions from all elements, the relevant boundary conditions and body and thermal forces a typical problem is then to compute the nodal displacements (i. e., the local strains) by solving the system K u = F, where K is the stiffness matrix, u the... [Pg.148]

The complexity of multicomponent distillation calculations can be appreciated by considering a typical problem. The normal procedure is to solve the MESH equations (Section 11.3.1) stage-by-stage, from the top and bottom of the column toward the feed point. For such a calculation to be exact, the compositions obtained from both the bottom-up and top-down calculations must mesh at the feed point and match the feed composition. But the calculated compositions will depend on the compositions assumed for the top and bottom products at the commencement of the calculations. Though it is possible to... [Pg.515]

The third type of methods treats time in an exact manner by allowing it to vary in search of a true optimum. Worthy of mention at this stage is that none of the graphical techniques bears this crucial capability in batch chemical plants. Ultimately, mainly mathematical techniques are used in order to treat time exactly. This assertion is further justified later in this textbook when graphical techniques are compared to mathematical techniques using a typical problem. [Pg.9]

Figure 12.5 illustrates a typical problem of analysis of minor components present in a matrix of highly abundant ones. Despite the availability of large LC-MS peak capacity (Table 12.3), the number of peptides detected in a semm/plasma digest does not exceed several hundreds (Kapp et al., 2005). These peptides typically match 30-50 high abundant proteins. We believe that the maj ority of remaining proteins/peptides in the sample are present at concentrations well below the LOD of MS instrument. [Pg.283]

Conformational Equilibria. The solvent effect on the conformational equilibria represents a typical problem studied using the DFT/SCRF methods. The presence of the environment may affect the free energy of a given conformer, its equilibrium conformation or even destabilize a particular conformation. The DFT/SCRF calculations have been applied to study such effects using various KS methods as well as different techniques for calculating

Figure 9-2 provides a convenient way of solving compressible adiabatic flow problems for piping systems. Some iteration is normally required, because the value of K( depends on the Reynolds number, which cannot be determined until G is found. An example of the procedure for solving a typical problem follows. [Pg.277]

A typical problem is to determine the mass flux G given the pipe length (L), inside diameter (d), and upstream and downstream pressures (Pi and P2). The procedure is as follows ... [Pg.145]

A typical problem to fuel cells operating at low temperatures comes from the catalyst, which can be damaged (or poisoned ) by the presence of CO or C02 and needs to be replaced AFC and PEMFC are rather intolerant to C02 and CO, while PAFC is moderately tolerant to CO and MCFC and SOFC are fully tolerant to CO. [Pg.301]

The RF interference associated with an infinite number of effective RF fields is a typical problem addressed by the Floqute theory.28 32 To solve the problem, one may, however, face the diagonalization of a matrix with infinite dimensions, which is often unlikely to be done analytically. Certain approximations, such as the perturbation method, may be used.32... [Pg.5]

All these expressions clearly reduce to the theorem of corresponding states for a one-component system (cf. Eqs. (8) and (10)). The problem is now to attribute values to the reduced volumes

In considering multicomponent systems, a feed of say A, B and C has been fed to a single column and the top product, mainly pure A, is obtained with bottoms of mainly B and C. If each component is required pure, then a two-column system is required in which the bottom stream is fed to the second column to separate B and C. With more components in the feed, more columns will be required and their arrangement becomes more complex. This is a typical problem in the petrochemical industry and a paper by Eliceche and Sargent 42) offers particularly helpful advice. [Pg.616]

Besides the advantage of the high-temperature measurements for quantitative interpretation of NOESY spectra, fig. 6 also indicates a special role of the high temperature maximum (note that positive cross-relaxation rates increase downward) of u". If the NOESY spectrum can be recorded at several temperatures around the cr" maximum, than calculated cross-relaxation rates can be used to obtain simultaneously the correlation time and the interproton distances without the necessity of any other knowledge. A typical problem in the cross-relaxation experiments is that cross-relaxation rate depends on two parameters, Tc and r (eq. (la)), and to calculate one of them the other must be independently known. However, the position of the maximum uniquely determines correlation time, and its height uniquely determines interproton distances. [Pg.293]

Time-resolved x-ray crystallography (TC) is a more recent advanced application of x-ray crystallography. It uses an intense synchrotron x-ray source and data collection methods to reduce crystallographic exposure times. This allows multiple exposures to be taken over time at near-physiological, crystalline conditions to determine the structures of intermediates. A typical problem with this method is that the existence of the intermediates is brief, resulting in difficulty in interpreting the resulting electron density maps. [Pg.156]

The conditional density arises, because p ) has been divided out. Equation (236c) relates what we are interested in, Y to the second condition average monopole, r2). This is a typical problem in... [Pg.283]

This equation for the doublet density if involves the triplet density f. It is a typical problem in statistical mechanics. To make progress, the hierarchy must be broken and this is usually done with a superposition approximation. The manner by which this is done is discussed in fee next sub-section. [Pg.345]

In trying to solve a typical problem like (8) by the elimination method for fixed i2 (or ij), exactly 0(N N2) arithmetic operations are needed in giving a solution at all the nodes of the grid. Their amount is proportional to the total number of the grid nodes in the plane. The main idea behind economical methods lies in successive solution of one-dimensional problems of the type (8) along rows and along columns in passing from one layer to another. [Pg.548]

As we have seen in the previous section, it may be easy to construct the carbon skeleton of the target compound of a synthesis, but with a reactive functional group at the wrong carbon. Therefore it is important also to have practice at shifting reactive entry points around to achieve the final desired product. We shall illustrate this form of molecular chess with reactions from previous chapters. A typical problem may be to devise syntheses for achieving the following conversions ... [Pg.522]

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