The zero-coupon curve is used in the asset-swap analysis, in which the curve is derived from the swap curve. Then, the asset-swap spread is the spread that allows us to receive the equivalence between the present value of cash flows and the current market price of the bond. [Pg.3]

Z-spread is an alternative spread measure to the ASW spread. This type of spread uses the zero-coupon yield curve to calculate the spread, in which in this case is assimilated to the interest-rate swap curve. Z-spread represents the spread needful in order to obtain the equivalence between the present value of the bond s cash flows and its current market price. However, conversely to the ASW spread, the Z-spread is a constant measme. [Pg.7]

The short end of the swap curve, out to three months, is based on the overnight, 1-month, 2-month, and 3-month deposit rates. The short-end deposit rates are inherently zero-coupon rates and need only be converted to the base currency swap rate compounding frequency and day count convention. The following equation is solved to compute the continuously compounded zero-swap rate (r ) ... [Pg.639]

The long end of the swap curve is derived directly from observable coupon swap rates. These are generic plain vanilla interest rate swaps with fixed rates exchanged for floating interest rates. The fixed swap rates are quoted as par rates and are usually compounded semiannually (see Exhibit 20.2). The bootstrap method is used to derive zero-coupon interest rates from the swap par rates. Starting from the first swap rate, given all the continuously compounded zero rates for the coupon cash flows prior to maturity, the continuously compounded zero rate for the term of the swap is bootstrapped as follows ... [Pg.643]

This chapter considers some of the techniques used to fit the model-derived term structure to the observed one. The Vasicek, Brennan-Schwartz, Cox-Ingersoll-Ross, and other models discussed in chapter 4 made various assumptions about the nature of the stochastic process that drives interest rates in defining the term structure. The zero-coupon curves derived by those models differ from those constructed from observed market rates or the spot rates implied by market yields. In general, market yield curves have more-variable shapes than those derived by term-structure models. The interest rate models described in chapter 4 must thus be calibrated to market yield curves. This is done in two ways either the model is calibrated to market instruments, such as money market products and interest rate swaps, which are used to construct a yield curve, or it is calibrated to a curve constructed from market-instrument rates. The latter approach may be implemented through a number of non-parametric methods. [Pg.83]

It is not surprising that the net present value is zero. The zero-coupon curve is used to derive the discount factors that are then used to derive the forward rates that are used to determine the swap rate. As with any financial instrument, the fair value is its break-even price or hedge cost. The bank that is pricing this swap could hedge it with a series of FRAs transacted at the forward rates shown. This method is used to price any interest rate swap, even exotic ones. [Pg.118]

The conventional approach for analyzing an asset swap uses the bonds yield-to-maturity (YTM) in calculating the spread. The assumptions implicit in the YTM calculation (see Chapter 2) make this spread problematic for relative analysis, so market practitioners use what is termed the Z-spread instead. The Z-spread uses the zero-coupon yield curve to calculate spread, so is a more realistic, and effective, spread to use. The zero-coupon curve used in the calculation is derived from the interest-rate swap curve. [Pg.432]

It is important for a zero-coupon yield curve to be constructed as accurately as possible. This because the curve is used in the valuation of a wide range of instruments, not only conventional cash market coupon bonds, which we can value using the appropriate spot rate for each cash flow, but other interest-rate products such as swaps. [Pg.250]

EXHIB[T20.3 EUR Swap Zero Curve (Continuously Compounded) as of 14 April 2000... [Pg.645]

EXHIB[T20.7A Linear Interpolation Swap Zero Curve by Currency (continuously compounded)... [Pg.649]

Some of the newer models refer to parameters that are difficult to observe or measure direcdy. In practice, this limits their application much as B-S is limited. Usually the problem has to do with calibratii the model properly, which is crucial to implementing it. Galibration entails inputtii actual market data to create the parameters for calculating prices. A model for calculating the prices of options in the U.S. market, for example, would use U.S. dollar money market, futures, and swap rates to build the zero-coupon yield curve. Multifactor models in the mold of Heath-Jarrow-Morton employ the correlation coefficients between forward rates and the term structure to calculate the volatility inputs for their price calculations. [Pg.158]

Our starting point is a set of zero curve tenors (or discount factors) obtained from a collection of market instruments such as cash deposits, futures, swaps, or coupon bonds. We therefore have a set of tenor points and their respective zero rates (or discount factors). The mathematics of cubic splines is straightforward, but we assume a basic understanding of calculus and a familiarity with solving simultaneous linear equations by substitution. An account of the methods analyzed in this section is given in Burden and Faires (1997), which has very accessible text on cubic spline interpolation. ... [Pg.97]

Using equation 14.16, we can build a forward inflation curve provided we have the values of the index at present, as well as a set of zero-coupon bond prices of required credit quality. Following standard yield curve analysis, we may build the term structure from forward rates and therefore imply the real yield curve, or alternatively we may construct the real curve and project the forward rates. However, if we are using inflation swaps for the market price inputs, the former method is preferred because IL swaps are usually quoted in terms of a forward index value. [Pg.322]

Put simply, the Z-spread is the basis point spread that would need to be added to the implied spot yield curve such that the discounted cash flows of the bond are equal to its present value (its current market price). Each bond cash flow is discounted by the relevant spot rate for its maturity term. How does this differ from the conventional asset-swap spread Essentially, in its use of zero-coupon rates when assigning a value to a bond. Each cash flow is discounted using its own particular zero-coupon rate. The bond s price at any time can be taken to be the market s value... [Pg.432]

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