The muonium centers observed in the curpous halides (see Table II) are unusual in several respects compared with Mu in other semiconductors and insulators. Figure 12 shows the reduced hyperfine parameters for Mu in semiconductors and ionic insulators plotted as a function of the ionicity (Philips, 1970). The positive correlation is especially apparent for compounds composed of elements on the same row of the periodic table where the lattice constants and valence orbitals are similar (see solid points in Fig. 12). Note however that the Mu hyperfine parameters in cuprous halides lie well below the line and in fact are smaller than in any other semiconductor or insulator (Kiefl et al., 1986b). The reason for this unusual behaviour is still uncertain but may be related to other unusual properties of the cuprous halides. For example the upper valence band is believed... [Pg.590]

energy diagram of Fig. 44 for a Cu electrode covered with the anodic oxides. For these diagrams an electronic equilibrium is assumed that leads to the same energy position of the Fermi level for Cu and its two anodic oxide layers. This situation defines an energetic difference of the upper valence band edge of CU2O and the Fermi level of 0.8 eV. [Pg.341]

The plus (minus) sign corresponds to E°7+(E°7.) E°9, E°7+ and E°7. correspond to the upper valence band states with T9, T7 and r7 symmetries, respectively. They are called A, B and C bands in that order, conventionally. The three quantities Ai, A2 and A3 can be derived from a theoretical procedure. At is directly estimated from the calculation without the spin-orbit interaction, and A2 and A3 are obtained by fitting the fully relativistically calculated top three energy levels at the T point to the above equations with the help of the obtained value of Ai. If we assume the quasi-cubic approximation (A = Ai, Ao = 3A2 = 3A3) [1,2], the energy splittings E°9 - E°7 can be rewritten as... [Pg.168]

In the analyses of conventional zincblende (ZB) semiconductors, we frequently assume a parabolic band for the conduction bands, and the 6 x 6 Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonians are used to describe the upper valence bands [1,2], In treating the valence bands together with the conduction bands on an equal footing, as when estimating the momentum matrix elements, we often make use of the 8 x 8 Kane Hamiltonian [3], However, the form of the Hamiltonians reflects the crystal symmetry, and Kane Hamiltonians are constructed under the condition of cubic symmetry. For wurtzite (WZ) materials, therefore, we must consider hexagonal symmetry in the effective Hamiltonian. Let us consider the 8 x 8 k.p Hamiltonian for WZ structure [4,5],... [Pg.187]

The upper valence band located above approximately -7.0 eV consists of two groups of peaks the letter B indicates N 2s - Ga 3s bonding states and the letter C, N 2p - Ga 3p bending states with a higher N 2p contribution. [Pg.307]

We may summarize the LCAO interpretation of the energy bands. Accurate bands were displayed initially in Fig. 6-1. The energy difference between the upper valence bands and the conduction bands that run parallel to them was associated with twice the covalent energy for homopolar semiconductors, or twice the bonding energy 2 Vl -1- in hetcropolar semiconductors. The broadening of those... [Pg.149]

The lower conduction band and the upper valence band change as the gap goes through zero and as mctallicity increases, from (a) to... [Pg.163]

Band and band-gap parameters given by Panlelides (1975c) //g can be used to obtain the band gap and r/v to obtain the width of the upper valence band (nonmetallic p band). [Pg.322]

Poole, Liesegang, Leckey, and Jenkin (1975) have reviewed published band calculations for the alkali halides and tabulated the corresponding parameters obtained by various methods. Pantclidcs (1975c) has used an empirical LCAO method that is similar to that described for cesium chloride in Chapter 2 (see Fig. 2-2), to obtain a universal one-parameter form for the upper valence bands in the rocksalt structure. This study did not assume only one important interatomic matrix clement, as we did in Chapter 2, but assumed that all interatomic matrix elements scale as d with universal parameters. Thus it follows that all systems would have bands of exactly the same form but of varying scale. That form is shown in Fig. 14-2. Rocksalt and zincblende have the same Brillouin Zone and symmetry lines, which were shown in Fig. 3.6. The total band width was given by... [Pg.323]

The universal form of the upper valence bands, and the density of states, found by Pantelides (1975c) for crystals of the rocksall structure. The energy unit for the ordinate, Vp, is a second-neighbor matrix element which entered his fittings the total width is 7.5 Vp. [After Pantiledes, 1975e.]... [Pg.324]

In the present report, three subjects are to be reviewed (i) The triplet structure of excitons and the upper valence band (ii) the full set of the fundamental optical functions in the 0-30 eV energy range for polarizations E II c, E J. c, and their theoretical analysis and (iii) the main parameters of the elementary transverse and longitudinal transition components in the 0-30 eV energy range for polarizations E c, E L c, and their theoretical analysis. [Pg.172]

It was shown in the quasicubic approximation of the group theory that the relative energies of three upper valence bands with energies E, E2, E3 are determined by the values of Ago and Ac, ... [Pg.173]

Two experimental results have been known, which show a possibility of considerable change of the parameters of all the three valence bands of ZnO. First, polarization of all the three exciton series of ZnO conceptually differs from their polarization in other A°B° crystals that is in good agreement with the conventional band model. This fact undoubtedly shows that in ZnO, not only the S5mimetry of the second band changes, but the symmetry of the third band also. Second, according to the photoemission spectra (PES), the valence band of zinc d-states (Zn 3d) is located below the top of the valence band of ZnO by 8 eV, while below its bottom only by 3 eV. ° Therefore, Zn 3d states can intermix with O 2p states and change the symmetry of the upper valence bands. [Pg.173]

Additional evidence for the effect of polymerization appears in the x-ray photoelectron spectral intensities of sihcates. DVM-Aa calculations on the energies and intensities of spectra by Sasaki and Adachi (1980a,b) satisfactorily reproduce relative intensities in the upper-valence-band region for SO/ [Fig. 5.8(a)] but seriously underestimate the intensity of the 5 i orbital feature of Si02 using a SiO/ cluster model [Fig. 5.8(b)]. This error may be a result of the influence of polymerization in SiOj, although the calculated spectrum is also somewhat different from that observed for olivine in Fig. 5.7. [Pg.224]

Figure 8.5 shows example calculated DOS plots for MgO and Ti02 (ratile). In both cases the zero of energy is taken as the highest occupied state which occurs at the top of the upper valence band (UVB). The small tail on the UVB that indicates some states with positive energy is an artefact of the smoothing process used to construct the DOS plot from a calculation using finite number of Ic-points. In addition to the total density of states, a decomposition into states associated with... [Pg.342]

For the upper valence bands (3rd and 4th bands) qA is still smaller than Qb but the differences between Qa and qe are much smaller than for the lower valence bands. For the upper valence bands the p components of the wave functions have the largest amplitudes. One thus concludes that the upper valence bands are predominantly s-p-hybrid bands formed by both the alkali and the non-alkali atoms. [Pg.108]

In Fig. Ila e(f) is plotted for the two upper valence bands. Distinct differences in the electron distribution for these electronic bands compared to the ones of the lower valence bands (Fig. 11b) can be found, although a gradient in the charge density from the nonalkali to the alkali sublattice still exists. For the electronic states of the upper valence bands, however, the chemical bond possesses a metallic-like component. This metallic... [Pg.111]

Rgure 2.75 Comparison of nonresonant X-ray emission spectroscopy (NXES) data for standards and after chemical/electrochemical treatments the energy region of transitions from the upper valence band of the SL ... [Pg.142]

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