The solution of the physical problems is always facilitated by the presence of symmetries. Spherical symmetry, allows the reduction of the stationary Dirac... [Pg.77]

Liquid-solid mass transfer resistance could be excluded because of the high agitation [11], As a result, concentration at the catalyst surface was assumed to be the same as in the liquid bulk. The second boundary condition is defined by the symmetry (spherical catalyst particles) and is thus dci/dz = 0. [Pg.314]

In spherical tops the x, y and z axes are related to each other by a set of four 3-fold symmetry operations. Consequently, all three principal moments of inertia are equal, so there is only one rotation constant, B. This arises only in molecules with tetrahedral, octahedral, cubic or higher symmetry, such as SiH4 (7.1, symmetry) and SF5 (7.II, 0 symmetry). Spherical tops do not have a dipole moment, so they cannot be observed directly in a pure rotational spectrum. [Pg.222]

The system exhibits competing symmetries - spherical symmetry due to the Coulomb potential and axial symmetry due to the Stark potential (applied electric field). Parity and angular momentiun, i, are no longer conserved only the magnetic quantiun niunber, m, is a good quantum number in this system. However, the z-component of the Runge-Lenz vector (besides Lz) is a constant of the motion in this system. [Pg.123]

An atom in a strong magnetic field is another example of a system which exhibits competing symmetries (spherical symmetry due to the Coulomb potential and cylindrical symmetry due to the magnetic field). The Hamiltonian for the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field in the z direction " (one atomic unit of magnetic field is 2.35 X lO T) is... [Pg.123]

Atoms have complete spherical synnnetry, and the angidar momentum states can be considered as different synnnetry classes of that spherical symmetry. The nuclear framework of a molecule has a much lower synnnetry. Synnnetry operations for the molecule are transfonnations such as rotations about an axis, reflection in a plane, or inversion tlnough a point at the centre of the molecule, which leave the molecule in an equivalent configuration. Every molecule has one such operation, the identity operation, which just leaves the molecule alone. Many molecules have one or more additional operations. The set of operations for a molecule fonn a mathematical group, and the methods of group theory provide a way to classify electronic and vibrational states according to whatever symmetry does exist. That classification leads to selection rules for transitions between those states. A complete discussion of the methods is beyond the scope of this chapter, but we will consider a few illustrative examples. Additional details will also be found in section A 1.4 on molecular symmetry. [Pg.1134]

The early Hartley model [2, 3] of a spherical micellar stmcture resulted, in later years, in some considerable debate. The self-consistency (inconsistency) of spherical symmetry witli molecular packing constraints was subsequently noted [4, 5 and 6]. There is now no serious question of tlie tenet tliat unswollen micelles may readily deviate from spherical geometry, and ellipsoidal geometries are now commonly reported. Many micelles are essentially spherical, however, as deduced from many light and neutron scattering studies. Even ellipsoidal objects will appear... [Pg.2586]

As mentioned above, HMO theory is not used much any more except to illustrate the principles involved in MO theory. However, a variation of HMO theory, extended Huckel theory (EHT), was introduced by Roald Hof nann in 1963 [10]. EHT is a one-electron theory just Hke HMO theory. It is, however, three-dimensional. The AOs used now correspond to a minimal basis set (the minimum number of AOs necessary to accommodate the electrons of the neutral atom and retain spherical symmetry) for the valence shell of the element. This means, for instance, for carbon a 2s-, and three 2p-orbitals (2p, 2p, 2p ). Because EHT deals with three-dimensional structures, we need better approximations for the Huckel matrix than... [Pg.379]

When the above analysis is applied to a diatomic species such as HCl, only k = 0 is present since the only vibration present in such a molecule is the bond stretching vibration, which has a symmetry. Moreover, the rotational functions are spherical harmonics (which can be viewed as D l, m, K (Q,< >,X) functions with K = 0), so the K and K quantum numbers are identically zero. As a result, the product of 3-j symbols... [Pg.407]

For non-linear molecules of the spherical or symmetric top variety, pf j(Rg) (or dpf j/dRa) may be aligned along or perdendicular to a symmetry axis of the molecule. The selection rules that result are... [Pg.416]

With nitrogen, the departure from spherical symmetry combined with the relatively strong quadrupole moment, leads to a blurring of the step-like character of the isotherm in the multilayer region (cf. Fig. 2.29(b)). [Pg.86]

As a consequence of these various possible conformations, the polymer chains exist as coils with spherical symmetry. Our eventual goal is to describe these three-dimensional structures, although some preliminary considerations must be taken up first. Accordingly, we begin by discussing a statistical exercise called a one-dimensional random walk. [Pg.43]

The three-dimensional radius of gyration of a random coil was discussed in Sec. 1.10 and found to equal one-sixth the mean-square end-to-end distance of the polymer [Eq. (1.59)]. What we need now is a connection between two-and three-dimensional radii of gyration. Since the molecule has spherical symmetry r, r> = V + r + r, = 3r . If only two of these contributions are present, we obtain (2/3)rg 3 = rg2o- this result and Eq. (1.59) to... [Pg.111]

They possess spherical symmetry around a center of nucleation. This symmetry projects a perfectly circular cross section if the development of the spherulite is not stopped by contact with another expanding spherulite. [Pg.241]

Pure Elements. AH of the hehum-group elements are colorless, odorless, and tasteless gases at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Chemically, they are nearly inert. A few stable chemical compounds are formed by radon, xenon, and krypton, but none has been reported for neon and belium (see Helium GROUP, compounds). The hehum-group elements are monoatomic and are considered to have perfect spherical symmetry. Because of the theoretical interest generated by this atomic simplicity, the physical properties of ah. the hehum-group elements except radon have been weU studied. [Pg.5]

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See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.29 ]

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