Graham showed that the rate of diffusion of different gases through a porous diaphragm was inversely proportional to the square roots of their densities this is the basis of a method of separation of gases, and has been applied successfully to the separation of hydrogen and deuterium. [Pg.137]

The radius of trajectory is proportional to the square root of the mass-to-I charge ratio, m/e, as follows . / ... [Pg.48]

Barnes and Hunter [290] have measured the evaporation resistance across octadecanol monolayers as a function of temperature to test the appropriateness of several models. The experimental results agreed with three theories the energy barrier theory, the density fluctuation theory, and the accessible area theory. A plot of the resistance times the square root of the temperature against the area per molecule should collapse the data for all temperatures and pressures as shown in Fig. IV-25. A similar temperature study on octadecylurea monolayers showed agreement with only the accessible area model [291]. [Pg.148]

polar interactions into a detailed analysis of the meaning of in Eq. IV-7. While there is no doubt that polar interactions are important, these are orientation dependent and hence structure sensitive. [Pg.453]

Show that for the case of a liquid-air interface Eq. XIII-8 predicts that the distance a liquid has penetrated into a capillary increases with the square root of the time. [Pg.489]

The simplest way to obtain X is to diagonalize S, take the reciprocal square roots of the eigenvalues and then transfomi the matrix back to its original representation, i.e. [Pg.39]

The Debye-Htickel limiting law predicts a square-root dependence on the ionic strength/= MTLcz of the logarithm of the mean activity coefficient (log y ), tire heat of dilution (E /VI) and the excess volume it is considered to be an exact expression for the behaviour of an electrolyte at infinite dilution. Some experimental results for the activity coefficients and heats of dilution are shown in figure A2.3.11 for aqueous solutions of NaCl and ZnSO at 25°C the results are typical of the observations for 1-1 (e.g.NaCl) and 2-2 (e.g. ZnSO ) aqueous electrolyte solutions at this temperature. [Pg.488]

As in tire case of themial conductivity, we see that the viscosity is independent of the density at low densities, and grows witli the square root of the gas temperature. This latter prediction is modified by a more systematic calculation based upon the Boltzmaim equation, but the independence of viscosity on density remains valid in the Boltzmaim equation approach as well. [Pg.675]

In the simplest fomi, reflects the time of flight of the ions from the ion source to the detector. This time is proportional to the square root of the mass, i.e., as the masses of the ions increase, they become closer together in flight time. This is a limiting parameter when considering the mass resolution of the TOP instrument. [Pg.1351]

inversely proportional to the square root of... [Pg.1435]

Finally, one problem still remains. There are complex temis which need to be associated with the detemimant. The complex temis (Maslov indices) have to do with the square root of tlie detenninant, which may be negative, and also appear in the related WKB approximation. They can be calculated, albeit with difficulty... [Pg.2315]

In sorjDtion experiments, the weight of sorbed molecules scales as tire square root of tire time, K4 t) ai t if diffusion obeys Pick s second law. Such behaviour is called case I diffusion. For some polymer/penetrant systems, M(t) is proportional to t. This situation is named case II diffusion [, ]. In tliese systems, sorjDtion strongly changes tire mechanical properties of tire polymers and a sharjD front of penetrant advances in tire polymer at a constant speed (figure C2.1.18). Intennediate behaviours between case I and case II have also been found. The occurrence of one mode, or tire otlier, is related to tire time tire polymer matrix needs to accommodate tire stmctural changes induced by tire progression of tire penetrant. [Pg.2537]

The S/N of any light intensity measurement varies as tire square root of tire intensity (number of photons) produced by tire source during tire time of tire measurement. The intensities typical of xenon arc lamps are sufficient for measurements of reasonable S/N on time scales longer tlian about a microsecond. However, a cw lamp will... [Pg.2955]

A conical intersection needs at least two nuclear degrees of freedom to form. In a ID system states of different symmetry will cross as Wy = 0 for i j and so when Wu = 0 the surfaces are degenerate. There is, however, no coupling between the states. States of the same symmetry in contrast cannot cross, as both Wij and Wu are nonzero and so the square root in Eq. (68) is always nonzero. This is the basis of the well-known non-crossing rule. [Pg.286]

data transformation. For example, sometimes it might be a good idea to use the logarithms of variables instead of the variables themselves. Alternatively, one may take the square roots, or, in contrast, raise variables to the nth power. However, genuine data transformation techniques involve far more sophisticated algorithms. As examples, we shall later consider Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Wavelet Transform and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). [Pg.206]

It ls not surprising chat such a relation should hold at the Limit of Knudsen diffusion, since Che Knudsen diffusion coefficients are themselves inversely proportional to the square roots of molecular weights, but the pore diameters in Graham s stucco plugs were certainly many times larger chan the gaseous mean free path lengths at the experimental conditions. [Pg.52]

When the density Is sufficiently low that the pressure difference Is proportional to density, then the ratio of the absolute pressures on the two sides of the plate Is equal to the square root of Che ratio of tha absolute temperatures. [Pg.178]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.6 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.40 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.949 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.6 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.3 ]

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