Apart from chemical composition, an important variable in the description of emulsions is the volume fraction,

The virial equation of state, first advocated by Kamerlingh Oimes in 1901, expresses the compressibility factor of a gas as a power series in die number density ... [Pg.202]

For homogeneous systems, the average number density is n = (N) / V=v Let us define a local number... [Pg.420]

Fluctuations of observables from their average values, unless the observables are constants of motion, are especially important, since they are related to the response fiinctions of the system. For example, the constant volume specific heat of a fluid is a response function related to the fluctuations in the energy of a system at constant N, V and T, where A is the number of particles in a volume V at temperature T. Similarly, fluctuations in the number density (p = N/V) of an open system at constant p, V and T, where p is the chemical potential, are related to the isothemial compressibility iCp which is another response fiinction. Temperature-dependent fluctuations characterize the dynamic equilibrium of themiodynamic systems, in contrast to the equilibrium of purely mechanical bodies in which fluctuations are absent. [Pg.437]

The non-consen>ed variable (.t,0 is a broken symmetry variable, it is the instantaneous position of the Gibbs surface, and it is the translational synnnetry in z direction that is broken by the inlioinogeneity due to the liquid-vapour interface. In a more microscopic statistical mechanical approach 121, it is related to the number density fluctuation 3p(x,z,t) as... [Pg.727]

Consider an isotropic medium that consists of independent and identical microscopic cln-omophores (molecules) at number density N. At. sth order, each element of the macroscopic susceptibility tensor, given in laboratory Cartesian coordinates A, B, C, D, must carry s + 1 (laboratory) Cartesian indices (X, Y or Z) and... [Pg.1189]

The tendency for particles to settle is opposed by tlieir Brownian diffusion. The number density distribution of particles as a function of height z will tend to an equilibrium distribution. At low concentration, where van T Ftoff s law applies, tire barometric height distribution is given by... [Pg.2673]

The constants K depend upon the volume of the solvent molecule (assumed to be spherica in slrape) and the number density of the solvent. ai2 is the average of the diameters of solvent molecule and a spherical solute molecule. This equation may be applied to solute of a more general shape by calculating the contribution of each atom and then scaling thi by the fraction of fhat atom s surface that is actually exposed to the solvent. The dispersioi contribution to the solvation free energy can be modelled as a continuous distributioi function that is integrated over the cavity surface [Floris and Tomasi 1989]. [Pg.625]

If we think in terms of the particulate nature of light (wave-particle duality), the number of particles of light or other electi omagnetic radiation (photons) in a unit of frequency space constitutes a number density. The blackbody radiation curve in Fig. 1-1, a plot of radiation energy density p on the vertical axis as a function of frequency v on the horizontal axis, is essentially a plot of the number densities of light particles in small intervals of frequency space. [Pg.3]

An interesting historical application of the Boltzmann equation involves examination of the number density of very small spherical globules of latex suspended in water. The particles are dishibuted in the potential gradient of the gravitational field. If an arbitrary point in the suspension is selected, the number of particles N at height h pm (1 pm= 10 m) above the reference point can be counted with a magnifying lens. In one series of measurements, the number of particles per unit volume of the suspension as a function of h was as shown in Table 3-3. [Pg.74]

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