In general, the quality of the data is much improved when more scans dian absolutely necessary are performed. For details see also the comments on MoO (Multiplicity of observations) in Chapter 2 and Muller (2005). [Pg.164]

Number of adjacent nuclei Multiplicity of observed resonance Relative Intensities of components of multiplets... [Pg.257]

identical unit cells, it could then be divided in many ways into slabs with parallel, plane faces whose distributions of scattering matter were identical and that if the pathlengths travelled by waves reflected from successive, parallel planes differed by integral multiples of the... [Pg.1364]

tracing method to obtain the phases after a full cycling. We shall further consider wave functions whose phases at the completion of cycling differ by integer multiples of 2jc (a situation that will be written, for brevity, as 2Nn ). Some time ago, these wave functions were shown to be completely equivalent, since only the phase factor (viz., is observable... [Pg.130]

Other chemometrics methods to improve caUbration have been advanced. The method of partial least squares has been usehil in multicomponent cahbration (48—51). In this approach the concentrations are related to latent variables in the block of observed instmment responses. Thus PLS regression can solve the colinearity problem and provide all of the advantages discussed earlier. Principal components analysis coupled with multiple regression, often called Principal Component Regression (PCR), is another cahbration approach that has been compared and contrasted to PLS (52—54). Cahbration problems can also be approached using the Kalman filter as discussed (43). [Pg.429]

It was not their reactivity but their chemical inertness that was the true surprise when diazirines were discovered in 1960. Thus they are in marked contrast to the known linear diazo compounds which are characterized by the multiplicity of their reactions. For example, cycloadditions were never observed with the diazirines. Especially surprising is the inertness of diazirines towards electrophiles. Strong oxidants used in their synthesis like dichromate, bromine, chlorine or hypochlorite are without action on diazirines. Diazirine formation may even proceed by oxidative dealkylation of a diaziridine nitrogen in (186) without destruction of the diazirine ring (75ZOR2221). The diazirine ring is inert towards ozone simple diazirines are decomposed only by more than 80% sulfuric acid (B-67MI50800). [Pg.220]

Hydrated bilayers containing one or more lipid components are commonly employed as models for biological membranes. These model systems exhibit a multiplicity of structural phases that are not observed in biological membranes. In the state that is analogous to fluid biological membranes, the liquid crystal or La bilayer phase present above the main bilayer phase transition temperature, Ta, the lipid hydrocarbon chains are conforma-tionally disordered and fluid ( melted ), and the lipids diffuse in the plane of the bilayer. At temperatures well below Ta, hydrated bilayers exist in the gel, or Lp, state in which the mostly all-trans chains are collectively tilted and pack in a regular two-dimensional... [Pg.465]

In general, different compounds of the same two elements have different atomic ratios. Since these atomic ratios are always ratios of integers, 1/1, 1/2, 2/1, 2/3, etc., the weight ratios will be simple multiples of each other. Thus the atomic theory explains the observation that different compounds of the same two elements have relative compositions by weight that are simple multiples of each other. [Pg.236]

Most direct methods proceed by applying to A a sequence of transformations in such a way that there results a matrix that is easily inverted. Each transformation is itself representable as the multiplication of A by a matrix that is simple in form. It may be observed that if C is any matrix such that CA has the inverse B,... [Pg.62]

Derivation of the Structure.—The observed intensities reported by Ludi et al. for the silver salt have been converted to / -values by dividing by the multiplicity of the form or pair of forms and the Lorentz and polarization factors (Table 1). With these / -values we have calculated the section z = 0 of the Patterson function. Maxima are found at the positions y2 0, 0 1/2, and 1/21/2. These maxima represent the silver-silver vectors, and require that silver atoms lie at or near the positions l/2 0 2,0 y2 z, V2 V2 z. The section z = l/2 of the Patterson function also shows pronounced maxima at l/2 0,0 y2, and y2 x/2, with no maximum in the neighborhood of y6 ys. These maxima are to be attributed to the silver-cobalt vectors, and they require that the cobalt atom lie at the position 0 0 0, if z for the silver atoms is assigned the value /. Thus the Patterson section for z = /2 eliminates the structure proposed by Ludi et al. [Pg.612]

Lanteri, H., Roche, M., Cuevas, O., Aime, C., 2001, A general method to devise maximum-likelihood signal restoration multiplicative algorithms with nonnegativity constraints. Signal Processing 81, 945 Lucy, L.B., 1974, An iterative technique for the rectification of observed distributions, ApJ 79, 745... [Pg.421]

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