Step 1 Apply conservation of mass. Steady-state mass flow through the device must obey... [Pg.62]

Knowing where waste is going is the key to reducing it. When reducing waste from process operations, a steady-state mass balance is not usually comprehensive enough. A balance that takes into account start-up, shutdown, and product changeovers is required. [Pg.296]

The high rate of mass transfer in SECM enables the study of fast reactions under steady-state conditions and allows the mechanism and physical localization of the interfacial reaction to be probed. It combines the usefid... [Pg.1941]

The effects of ultrasound-enlianced mass transport have been investigated by several authors [73, 74, 75 and 76]. Empirically, it was found that, in the presence of ultrasound, the limiting current for a simple reversible electrode reaction exhibits quasi-steady-state characteristics with intensities considerably higher in magnitude compared to the peak current of the response obtained under silent conditions. The current density can be... [Pg.1942]

A proper resolution of Che status of Che stoichiometric relations in the theory of steady states of catalyst pellets would be very desirable. Stewart s argument and the other fragmentary results presently available suggest they may always be satisfied for a single reaction when the boundary conditions correspond Co a uniform environment with no mass transfer resistance at the surface, regardless of the number of substances in Che mixture, the shape of the pellet, or the particular flux model used. However, this is no more than informed and perhaps wishful speculation. [Pg.149]

Film Theory. Many theories have been put forth to explain and correlate experimentally measured mass transfer coefficients. The classical model has been the film theory (13,26) that proposes to approximate the real situation at the interface by hypothetical "effective" gas and Hquid films. The fluid is assumed to be essentially stagnant within these effective films making a sharp change to totally turbulent flow where the film is in contact with the bulk of the fluid. As a result, mass is transferred through the effective films only by steady-state molecular diffusion and it is possible to compute the concentration profile through the films by integrating Fick s law ... [Pg.21]

Other Models for Mass Transfer. In contrast to the film theory, other approaches assume that transfer of material does not occur by steady-state diffusion. Rather there are large fluid motions which constantiy bring fresh masses of bulk material into direct contact with the interface. According to the penetration theory (33), diffusion proceeds from the interface into the particular element of fluid in contact with the interface. This is an unsteady state, transient process where the rate decreases with time. After a while, the element is replaced by a fresh one brought to the interface by the relative movements of gas and Uquid, and the process is repeated. In order to evaluate a constant average contact time T for the individual fluid elements is assumed (33). This leads to relations such as... [Pg.23]

There are many sources of errors in the plant. The principal ones are related to sampling (qv), mass flow rates, assaying, and deviations from steady state. Collecting representative samples at every stage of the flow sheet constitutes a significant task. Numerous methods and equipment are available (10,16,17). [Pg.395]

Because mass flow bins have stable flow patterns that mimic the shape of the bin, permeabihty values can be used to calculate critical, steady-state discharge rates from mass flow hoppers. Permeabihty values can also be used to calculate the time required for fine powders to settle in bins and silos. In general, permeabihty is affected by particle size and shape, ie, permeabihty decreases as particle size decreases and the better the fit between individual particles, the lower the permeabihty moisture content, ie, as moisture content increases, many materials tend to agglomerate which increases permeabihty and temperature, ie, because the permeabihty factor, K, is inversely proportional to the viscosity of the air or gas in the void spaces, heating causes the gas to become more viscous, making the sohd less permeable. [Pg.555]

Testers are available to measure the permeabihty and compressibiUty of powders and other bulk soflds (6). Erom such tests critical, steady-state flow rates through various outlet sizes in mass flow bins can be calculated. With this information, an engineer can determine the need for changing the outlet size and/or installing an air permeation system to increase the flow rate. Furthermore, the optimum number and location of air permeation levels can be deterrnined, along with an estimate of air flow requirements. [Pg.561]

Stea.dy-Sta.teFeedforwa.rd, The simplest form of feedforward (FF) control utilizes a steady-state energy or mass balance to determine the appropriate manipulated variable adjustment. This form of feedforward control does not account for the process dynamics of the disturbance or manipulated variables on the controlled variable. Consider the steam heater shown ia Figure 15. If a steady-state feedforward control is designed to compensate for feed rate disturbances, then a steady-state energy balance around the heater yields ... [Pg.71]

For the air—water system, the humidity is easily measured by using a wet-bulb thermometer. Air passing the wet wick surrounding the thermometer bulb causes evaporation of moisture from the wick. The balance between heat transfer to the wick and energy requited by the latent heat of the mass transfer from the wick gives, at steady state,... [Pg.97]

Gas Transport. Initially, ia a vessel containing air at atmospheric pressure, mass motion takes place when temperature differences exist and especially when a valve is opened to a gas pump. Initial dow ia practical systems has been discussed (29), as have Monte Cado methods to treat shockwave, turbulent, and viscous dow phenomena under transient and steady-state conditions (5). [Pg.372]

As a reactant molecule from the fluid phase surrounding the particle enters the pore stmcture, it can either react on the surface or continue diffusing toward the center of the particle. A quantitative model of the process is developed by writing a differential equation for the conservation of mass of the reactant diffusing into the particle. At steady state, the rate of diffusion of the reactant into a shell of infinitesimal thickness minus the rate of diffusion out of the shell is equal to the rate of consumption of the reactant in the shell by chemical reaction. Solving the equation leads to a result that shows how the rate of the catalytic reaction is influenced by the interplay of the transport, which is characterized by the effective diffusion coefficient of the reactant in the pores, and the reaction, which is characterized by the first-order reaction rate constant. [Pg.171]

For the special case of steady-state unidirectional diffusion of a component through an inert-gas film in an ideal-gas system, the rate of mass transfer is derived as... [Pg.604]

A useful simphfication of the total energy equation applies to a particular set of assumptions. These are a control volume with fixed solid boundaries, except for those producing shaft work, steady state conditions, and mass flow at a rate m through a single planar entrance and a single planar exit (Fig. 6-4), to whi(m the velocity vectors are perpendicular. As with Eq. (6-11), it is assumed that the stress vector tu is normal to the entrance and exit surfaces and may be approximated by the pressure p. The equivalent pressure, p + pgz, is assumed to be uniform across the entrance and exit. The average velocity at the entrance and exit surfaces is denoted by V. Subscripts 1 and 2 denote the entrance and exit, respectively. [Pg.633]

When reactants are distributed between several phases, migration between phases ordinarily will occur with gas/liquid, from the gas to the liquid] with fluid/sohd, from the fluid to the solid between hquids, possibly both ways because reactions can occur in either or both phases. The case of interest is at steady state, where the rate of mass transfer equals the rate of reaction in the destined phase. Take a hyperbohc rate equation for the reaction on a surface. Then,... [Pg.691]

The most important consideration in controUing the quality of concentrate from an evaporator is forcing the vapor rate to match the flow of excess solvent entering in the feed. The mass flow of sohd material entering and leaving are equal in the steady state ... [Pg.749]

Under steady state, the mass balance on both solids and hquid yield, respectively ... [Pg.1726]

This is an old, familiar analysis that applies to any continuous culture with a single growth-limiting nutrient that meets the assumptions of perfect mixing and constant volume. The fundamental mass balance equations are used with the Monod equation, which has no time dependency and should be apphed with caution to transient states where there may be a time lag as [L responds to changing S. At steady state, the rates of change become zero, and [L = D. Substituting ... [Pg.2146]

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