The identical transformation, equation (6), of the electromagnetic vector potentials was found before to leave the fields unaffected or gauge invariant. The fields Atl are not gauge invariant, but the fields described by the tensor, equation (33) [Pg.167]

E The identity transformation meaning do nothing (from the German Einheit, meaning unity). [Pg.274]

In this case we have to consider the transformation repeated n times (where n - oo) applied separately to the radius r and to the phase

Consider a coordinate transformation which differs from the identity transformation discussed above by an infinitesimal amount for each coordinate, i.e. [Pg.366]

The drawback of the method is that not every near the identity transformation can be represented as a Lie series with a fixed generating function. However, this is not a big disadvantage just use a composition of Lie series with a sequence of generating functions. [Pg.10]

Both functions n+ and n are linear transformations from to C". Notice that n+ -F n is the identity transformation from to C, The typical physics notation for n+ is I+z) (+z. and a typical calculation looks like this [Pg.49]

Let us go back to the general problem of dynamics. The goal is to perform a near the identity canonical transformation that gives the Hamiltonian a suitable form, that we shall generically call a normal form. We shall use the method based on composition of Lie series. Let us briefly recall how the method works. A near the identity transformation is produced by the canonical flow at time e of a generating function %(p, q), and takes the form [Pg.9]

Figure 10 (a) Prismane (b), (c), (d) benzene n-orbitals obtained by applying a topological identity transformation to the bonds shown by dashed lines in (a) (e) an antisymmetric n-orbital for benzene [Pg.49]

However, whenM = A) the projection operation is done onto the whole space and is, thus, the identity transformation P is then the unit matrix and, as a consequence, no information is needed to determine it, leading to K = 0 in such a case. [Pg.139]

M = niA + mg + me + mg and mAB = mA + mg where mx is the mass of atom X. The transformation Eq. (3) is nothing but the identity transformation. The only reason it does not look like one is that the (primed) coordinates used to describe the products, Eq. (2), are not the same as the coordinates used to describe the reactants. That Eq. (3) is really the identity matrix follows from the assumption of the model that the motion of the reactants is unperturbed, up to the transition configuration and that beyond this configuration the products recede without any intermolecular coupling. [Pg.33]

The geometrical symmetry group of a topological graph of a diphenyl molecule includes four elements the identity transformation E and three symmetry axes of second order C and [Pg.65]

Figure 9 Suprafacial [1,3] shift in propene. (a) orbitals for reactant (b) orbitals for product obtained by a topological identity transformation from (a) (c) actual orbitals for product |

It is noted that two successive symmetry transformations of a system leave that system invariant. The product of the two operations is therefore also a symmetry operation of the system. The set of symmetry transformations is therefore closed under the law of successive transformations. An identity transformation that leaves the system unchanged clearly belongs to the set. It is not difficult to see that any given symmetry transformation has an inverse that also belongs to the set. Since successive transformations of the set obey the associative law it finally follows that the set constitutes a group. [Pg.57]

It is interesting to note that different bosonic Hamiltonians Jif may correspond to the same original Hamiltonian H. This ambiguity reflects the fact that a transformation of the bosonic Hamiltonian M" M which corresponds to the identity transformation in the physical subspace does not change the dynamics in this subspace. For example, the two bosonic Hamiltonians [Pg.305]

The family of all possible homeomorphisms of three-dimensional space is a group Evidently, any two such homeomorphisms applied consecutively correspond to one such homeomorphism (closure property). The unit element is the identity transformation. Each homeomorphism has an inverse, and the product of homeomorphisms is associative. [Pg.168]

Meyers has demonstrated that chiral oxazolines derived from valine or rert-leucine are also effective auxiliaries for asymmetric additions to naphthalene. These chiral oxazolines (39 and 40) are more readily available than the methoxymethyl substituted compounds (3) described above but provide comparable yields and stereoselectivities in the tandem alkylation reactions. For example, addition of -butyllithium to naphthyl oxazoline 39 followed by treatment of the resulting anion with iodomethane afforded 41 in 99% yield as a 99 1 mixture of diastereomers. The identical transformation of valine derived substrate 40 led to a 97% yield of 42 with 94% de. As described above, sequential treatment of the oxazoline products 41 and 42 with MeOTf, NaBKi and aqueous oxalic acid afforded aldehydes 43 in > 98% ee and 90% ee, respectively. These experiments demonstrate that a chelating (methoxymethyl) group is not necessary for reactions to proceed with high asymmetric induction. [Pg.242]

As written, the CIDs (2.3) and (2.5) apply to Rayleigh scattering. The same expression can be used for Raman optical activity if the property tensors are replaced by corresponding vibrational Raman transition tensors. This enables us to deduce the basic symmetry requirements for natural vibrational ROA 15,5) the same components of aap and G p must span the irreducible representation of the particular normal coordinate of vibration. This can only happen in the chiral point groups C , Dn, O, T, I (which lack improper rotation elements) in which polar and axial tensors of the same rank, such as aaP and G (or e, /SAv6, ) have identical transformation properties. Thus, all the Raman-active vibrations in a chiral molecule should show Raman optical activity. [Pg.156]

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