The function e a x z ), is called a Gauss error curve, having been used by Gauss to describe distribution functions similar to our /( ) in the theory of errors. It equals unity when x = x0, and falls off on both sides of this point symmetrically, being reduced to 1 /e when [Pg.106]

Formula (2.8) is an obviously convenient expression for the distribution function. From it one can find the mean square deviation of xo. Obviously the mean value of x is x0, from the symmetry of Eq. (2.8). Then, using Eq. (2.1), we have [Pg.106]

we have a general expression for mean square fluctuations, if only we can express E — Ts as a function of x. This ordinarily can be done conveniently for the internal energy E. We shall now show that, to a very good approximation, equals the entropy S, so that it also can be expressed in terms of the parameter x, by ordinary thermodynamic means. To do this, we shall compute the partition function Z [Pg.106]

Now if the peak of f(x) is narrow, E(x ,) will be practically equal to 17, the mean value of E, which is used in thermodynamic expressions like Eq. [Pg.106]

Therefore Sbb. Sbc, and Sec are the experimentally obtained partial scattering fimctions and Sbb(Q) is the partial scattering function for fluctuation or blob scattering. Equation 36 assmnes an experiment under brush contrast. [Pg.26]

temperature fluctuations in an equilibrium fluid [18]. Using (A3.2.321 and (A3.2.331 the correlation function for temperature deviations is found to be... [Pg.706]

close relation to the fluctuations, one may introduce the correlation functions. The pair density distribution function for fluid particles (ri, r2) is defined as the average over all realizations of the matrix structure of the... [Pg.300]

Fig. 2.41 Auto-correlation functions for pressure and temperature fluctuations. Reprinted from Hetsroni et al. (2002b) with permission... |

Yang ZZ, Wu Y, Zhao DX (2004) Atom-bond electronegativity equalization method fused into molecular mechanics. I. A seven-site fluctuating charge and flexible body water potential function for water clusters. J Chem Phys 120(6) 2541-2557... [Pg.253]

In this case the preparation of the barrier is performed mainly by the quantum fluctuations of the tunneling particle in the transverse direction. Note that the width of the distribution here is l/ /2 of that in the distribution function for the coordinates qp. This is due to the fact that in this case the fluctuations of the particle are of quantum character and a coherent averaging of the resonance... [Pg.145]

Fitzgerald et al. (1984) measured pressure fluctuations in an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor and a quarter-scale cold model. The full set of scaling parameters was matched between the beds. The autocorrelation function of the pressure fluctuations was similar for the two beds but not within the 95% confidence levels they had anticipated. The amplitude of the autocorrelation function for the hot combustor was significantly lower than that for the cold model. Also, the experimentally determined time-scaling factor differed from the theoretical value by 24%. They suggested that the differences could be due to electrostatic effects. Particle sphericity and size distribution were not discussed failure to match these could also have influenced the hydrodynamic similarity of the two beds. Bed pressure fluctuations were measured using a single pressure point which, as discussed previously, may not accurately represent the local hydrodynamics within the bed. Similar results were... [Pg.69]

Patient requires assistance with activities of daily living. Frequently disoriented with regard to time (date, year, season). Recall for recent events is severely impaired. May forget some details of past life and names of family and friends. Functioning may fluctuate from day to day. Patient generally denies problems. May become suspicious or tearful. Loses ability to drive safely. Agitation, paranoia, and delusions are common. [Pg.741]

In turbulent reactive flows, the chemical species and temperature fluctuate in time and space. As a result, any variable can be decomposed in its mean and fluctuation. In Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations, only the means of the variables are computed. Therefore, a method to obtain a turbulent database (containing the means of species, temperature, etc.) from the laminar data is needed. In this work, the mean variables are calculated by PDF-averaging their laminar values with an assumed shape PDF function. For details the reader is referred to Refs. [16, 17]. In the combustion model, transport equations for the mean and variances of the mixture fraction and the progress variable and the mean mass fraction of NO are solved. More details about this turbulent implementation of the flamelet combustion model can also be found in Ref. [20],... [Pg.177]

Hence, the picoeconomic theory of addiction and the modified version of the rational choice theory of addiction obtained by allowing for fluctuations in discount functions do in fact have a fairly large common core. [Pg.165]

From the above linear theory the time-correlation function for the thermal fluctuation < ,(1) decays exponentially with the decay rate rth(q) given by... [Pg.100]

It has recently been pointed out by Gordon1 that the root-mean-square fluctuations in the sampled values of the autocorrelation function of a dynamical variable do not necessarily relax to their equilibrium values at the same rate as the autocorrelation function itself relaxes. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the relative rates of relaxation of autocorrelation functions and their fluctuations in certain systems that can be described by Smoluchowski equations,2 i.e., Fokker-Planck equations in coordinate space. We exhibit the fluctuation and autocorrelation functions for several simple systems, and show that they usually relax at different rates. [Pg.137]

We first obtain autocorrelation and fluctuation functions for the function /(r) = r2. For this purpose, we shall need to find (r02r,2y and

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