Ks M nij N saturation constant molar mass of acetic acid flow rate ratio number of columns [Pg.166]

There is an optimum fuel and oxidant flow rate to the flame, or, more precisely, an optimum fuel-oxidant flow rate ratio. If the flame is oxidant-rich, it is too cool. If it is fuel-rich, it is too hot. Again, monitoring the absorbance of an analyte standard while varying the flow rates helps to find the optimum ratio. Instrument manufacturers literature will also provide assistance. Safety issues relating to the proper flow rate of these gases will be addressed in Section 9.3.7. [Pg.256]

Itoh (1987) These results arc achieved at high feed/purging flow rate ratios. [Pg.130]

Scale-up of gas atomizers is difficult and it requires the use of higher gas-to-melt mass flow rate ratio to maintain the same droplet size. The scale-up may also cause some complex phenomena to occur, such as the disappearance of the prefilming effect in close-coupled atomizers, the generation of turbulence in melt flow within delivery nozzle, and change in atomization mechanisms. [Pg.87]

The constraints on m1 and m4 are explicit. The lower limit of m, however, does not depend on the other flow rate ratios, whereas the upper limit of m4 is an explicit function of the flow rate ratios m2 and m3 and of the feed composition respectively [25]. The constraints on m2 and m3 are implicit (see Eq. 4), but they do not depend on m1 and m4. Therefore, they define a unique region of complete separation in the (m2, m3) plane, which is the triangle-shaped region abw in Fig. 4. The boundaries of this region can be calculated explicitly in terms of the adsorption equilibrium parameters and the feed composition as follows [25] [Pg.219]

The detector is based on the combustion of sulfur-containing compounds in a hydrogen rich air fleuie of a FID to form sulfur monoxide. The hydrogen/air flow rate ratio is the most critical parameter controlling the production of sulfur monoxide. Under optimum conditions sulfur monoxide may account for up to 20% of the sulfur species in the flame. Sulfur monoxide is a free radical and a very reactive species that is short lived however, it can be stabilized in a vacuum, and a ceramic probe under reduced pressure can be used to sample it in the flame and transfer it to [Pg.151]

The non-linearity effect can easily be demonstrated by the following theoretical separation of a binary mixture. Let us assume that the concentrations of A and B are the same and correspond each to half of the overall feed concentration. The feed concentration is in addition assumed to be the only parameter necessary to characterize the feed composition. The mass flow ratio in section 1 (constrained by Eq. (8)) does not depend on the feed composition. On the contrary, the upper Emit on the flow rate ratio m4 given by Eq. (10) is a function of the feed composition. Both dependencies are illustrated in Fig. 5. [Pg.221]

I have attempted to adapt a chemically or mechanically etched glass tube to air inlet-outlet geometries that have low probabilities of particle loss. With desirable air-liquid flow-rate ratios as stated, the integrity of a continuous film covering the surface, if formed in the first place, was short-lived. Invariably, within a few hours dry areas would be apparent, and in the worst case a single narrow stream of water would flow down one wall. [Pg.91]

As the feed concentration increases the basis of the triangle and the position of the vertex shifts downwards to the left. The complete separation region becomes narrower and concomitantly also less robust. This implies that when the concentration of the feed is increased, the flow rate ratios in Sects. 2 and 3, as well as the difference (m3 - m2) decrease in consequence (see also Fig. 5). Material balances show that the maximum productivity increases with the feed concentration and asymptotically approaches a maximum value. Hence, when feed concentration increases, productivity improves, but robustness becomes poorer. So the optimum value for the feed concentration of an SMB tends to be defined by a compromise between the opposite needs of productivity and robustness [25,27]. [Pg.223]

It should be remembered that controlled variables need not be simple directly measured variables. They can also be computed from a number of sensor inputs. Common examples are heat removal rates, mass flow rates, ratios of flow rates, etc. [Pg.596]

Subsequently, the condition of complete separation has to be coupled with the material balances derived for the nodes of the SMB unit and implemented in the Equilibrium Theory Model for Langmuir-type systems. That leads to the set of mathematical conditions given below, which the flow rate ratios have to fulfil in order to achieve complete separation, in particular [Pg.219]

Regarding the effects of process parameters on gas atomization of melts, modeling and experimental studies l63 l64 324l revealed that the mass median droplet diameter decreases with increasing atomization gas pressure and gas to metal mass flow rate ratio. The standard deviation decreases with increasing gas to metal mass flow rate ratio. As the melt superheat increases, both the mass median droplet diameter and the standard deviation decrease. [Pg.364]

Let us assume a standard four-zone SMB unit, in which the complete separation of a binary mixture, constituted of the more retained component A and the less retained component B is to be achieved. In the framework of the Equilibrium Theory, the key operating parameters through which the performance of the SMB can be controlled are the flow rate ratios, rrij, /=l,...,4,in the four sections of the SMB unit, according to [Pg.218]

Similarly to pressure-swirl atomization and air-assist atomization, the mean droplet size is proportional to liquid viscosity and surface tension, and inversely proportional to air velocity, air pressure, air density, relative velocity between air and liquid, and mass flow rate ratio of air to liquid, with different proportional power [Pg.264]

To compare the results of the correlation presented in this article and an exact numerical solution, let us consider the case where air with a wet-bulb temperature of 70°F is used to cool water from 120°F to 80°F. Table 1 summarizes the results for different air-to-water flow rate ratios. [Pg.159]

For the simulation of SMB-separations efficient software packages,based on the Triangle-Theory, are commercially available. The number of columns, the column dimensions, the theoretical number of plates in the columns, the feed concentration, the bi-Langmuir adsorption isotherm parameters and the number of cycles need to be defined by the user. Then the separation is simulated and values for the flow rate ratios, the flow rates, the switching time and the quality of the separation, purity and yield, are calculated. Based on these values an actual separation can be performed. However, some optimization/further development is usually necessary, since the simulations are based on an ideal model and the derived parameters and results therefore can only be taken as indications for the test runs. [Pg.224]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.108 ]

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