1 Plug flow with stagnant zone. Parameters b, d b + d = 1 [Pg.76]

2 Perfect mixing flow with stagnant zone Parameters m, d [Pg.76]

3 Plug Flow with by-pass connection Parameters Gvl. [Pg.76]

8 Plug flow with series perfect mixing [Pg.77]

Numerous examples of polymer flow models based on generalized Newtonian behaviour are found in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics literature. Using experimental evidence the time-independent generalized Newtonian fluids are divided into three groups. These are Bingham plastics, pseudoplastic fluids and dilatant fluids. [Pg.6]

Example.s of polymeric flow models where the above simplifications have been successfully used are presented in Chapter 5. [Pg.18]

Weighted residual finite element methods described in Chapter 2 provide effective solution schemes for incompressible flow problems. The main characteristics of these schemes and their application to polymer flow models are described in the present chapter. [Pg.71]

As already discussed, in general, polymer flow models consist of the equations of continuity, motion, constitutive and energy. The constitutive equation in generalized Newtonian models is incorporated into the equation of motion and only in the modelling of viscoelastic flows is a separate scheme for its solution reqixired. [Pg.71]

Equations of continuity and motion in a flow model are intrinsically connected and their solution should be described simultaneously. Solution of the energy and viscoelastic constitutive equations can be considered independently. [Pg.71]

The convection term in the equation of motion is kept for completeness of the derivations. In the majority of low Reynolds number polymer flow models this term can be neglected. [Pg.71]

Therefore the viscoelastic extra stress acting on a fluid particle is found via an integral in terms of velocities and velocity gradients evalua ted upstream along the streamline passing through its current position. This expression is used by Papanastasiou et al. (1987) to develop a finite element scheme for viscoelastic flow modelling. [Pg.89]

Consider the weighted residual statement of the equation of motion in a steady state Stokes flow model, expressed as... [Pg.93]

To avoid imposition of unrealistic exit boundary conditions in flow models Taylor et al. (1985) developed a method called traction boundary conditions . In this method starting from an initial guess, outflow condition is updated in an iterative procedure which ensures its consistency with the flow regime immediately upstream. This method is successfully applied to solve a number of turbulent flow problems. [Pg.97]

It is evident that application of Green s theorem cannot eliminate second-order derivatives of the shape functions in the set of working equations of the least-sc[uares scheme. Therefore, direct application of these equations should, in general, be in conjunction with C continuous Hermite elements (Petera and Nassehi, 1993 Petera and Pittman, 1994). However, various techniques are available that make the use of elements in these schemes possible. For example, Bell and Surana (1994) developed a method in which the flow model equations are cast into a set of auxiliary first-order differentia] equations. They used this approach to construct a least-sciuares scheme for non-Newtonian flow equations based on equal-order C° continuous, p-version hierarchical elements. [Pg.126]

Incorporation of viscosity variations in non-elastic generalized Newtonian flow models is based on using empirical rheological relationships such as the power law or Carreau equation, described in Chapter 1. In these relationships fluid viscosity is given as a function of shear rate and material parameters. Therefore in the application of finite element schemes to non-Newtonian flow, shear rate at the elemental level should be calculated and used to update the fluid viscosity. The shear rale is defined as the second invariant of the rate of deformation tensor as (Bird et at.., 1977)... [Pg.126]

Petera,. 1. and Nassehi, V., 1993. Flow modelling using isoparametric Hermite elements. In Taylor C. (ed.), Numerical Methods in Laminar and Turbulent Flow, Vol. VIII, Part 2, Pineridge Press, Swansea. [Pg.139]

G is a multiplier which is zero at locations where slip condition does not apply and is a sufficiently large number at the nodes where slip may occur. It is important to note that, when the shear stress at a wall exceeds the threshold of slip and the fluid slides over the solid surface, this may reduce the shearing to below the critical value resulting in a renewed stick. Therefore imposition of wall slip introduces a form of non-linearity into the flow model which should be handled via an iterative loop. The slip coefficient (i.e. /I in the Navier s slip condition given as Equation (3.59) is defined as... [Pg.158]

Hannart, B. and Hoplinger, E.J., 1998. Laminar flow in a rectangular diffuser near Hele-Sliaw conditions - a two dinien.sioiial numerical simulation. In Bush, A. W., Lewis, B. A. and Warren, M.D. (eds), Flow Modelling in Industrial Processes, cli. 9, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, pp. 110-118. [Pg.189]

Iterative solution methods are more effective for problems arising in solid mechanics and are not a common feature of the finite element modelling of polymer processes. However, under certain conditions they may provide better computer economy than direct methods. In particular, these methods have an inherent compatibility with algorithms used for parallel processing and hence are potentially more suitable for three-dimensional flow modelling. In this chapter we focus on the direct methods commonly used in flow simulation models. [Pg.199]

FLOW. Calculates members of the elemental stiffness matrix corresponding to the flow model. [Pg.211]

The following flow model is provided by the Prandtl-Reuss law (see Sadovskii, 1992, 1997) ... [Pg.5]

The flow model of Prandtl-Reuss for elastoplastic plate is as follows ... [Pg.12]

Flow models Flow number FLOWPACK Flow patterns Flow-sheet models FlowSorb 2300 FLOWIRAN... [Pg.408]

Ref 91. Discounted cash-flow models account for use of capital, working capital, income taxes, time value of money, and operating expenses. Real after-tax return assumed to be 12.0%. Short-rotation model used for sycamore and poplar. Herbaceous model used for other species. Costs ia 1990 dollars. Dry tons. [Pg.37]

In the flow models these effects are confined to the boundary layers, maintaining the vaHdity of the qua si-one-dimensional flow model. The flow is... [Pg.417]

Reverse osmosis models can be divided into three types irreversible thermodynamics models, such as Kedem-Katchalsky and Spiegler-Kedem models nonporous or homogeneous membrane models, such as the solution—diffusion (SD), solution—diffusion—imperfection, and extended solution—diffusion models and pore models, such as the finely porous, preferential sorption—capillary flow, and surface force—pore flow models. Charged RO membrane theories can be used to describe nanofiltration membranes, which are often negatively charged. Models such as Dorman exclusion and the... [Pg.146]

Flow Models. Many flow models have been proposed (10,12), which are useful for the treatment of experimental data or for describing flow behavior (Table 1). However, it is likely that no given model fits the rheological behavior of a material over an extended shear rate range. Nevertheless, these models are useful for summarizing rheological data and are frequently encountered in the Hterature. [Pg.167]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.32 , Pg.44 , Pg.45 , Pg.46 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.133 ]

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