Let g(k, cr) be the probability that a site with value a has exactly k live neighbors (i.e. that Yf o — k)-, note that Then [Pg.367]

But this last expression is exactly the quantity that we have been calculating in the last section. Up to second-order cumulants, it is the p given in equation 7.115. We therefore have that [Pg.367]

There is a rather wide disparity between experiment and the second-order cumulate prediction for small T, equation 7.123 correctly predicts both the values of equilibrium density for large T and the fact that the system undergoes a sharp [Pg.367]

In our opening remarks in this section, we mentioned that an analogy with dynamical Ising models can only be carried so far since there is no known conserved energy for the Life rule. However, Schulman and Seiden were able to discover a possible constant of the motion , namely a normalized entropy. [Pg.368]

The molecular mechanics or quantum mechanics energy at an energy minimum corresponds to a hypothetical, motionless state at OK. Experimental measurements are made on molecules at a finite temperature when the molecules undergo translational, rotational and vibration motion. To compare the theoretical and experimental results it is... [Pg.291]

Because the cohesive energy of the fullerene Cyo is —7.29 eV/atom and that of the graphite sheet is —7.44 eV/atom, the toroidal forms (except torus C192) are energetically stable (see Fig. 5). Finite temperature molecular-dynamics simulations show that all tori (except torus Cm2) are thermodynamically stable. [Pg.79]

In the next paper [160], Villain discussed the model in which the local impurities are to some extent treated in the same fashion as in the random field Ising model, and concluded, in agreement with earlier predictions for RFIM [165], that the commensurate, ordered phase is always unstable, so that the C-IC transition is destroyed by impurities as well. The argument of Villain, though presented only for the special case of 7 = 0, suggests that at finite temperatures the effects of impurities should be even stronger, due to the presence of strong statistical fluctuations in two-dimensional systems which further destabilize the commensurate phase. [Pg.275]

On a so-called vicinal face there are many steps running in parallel with almost the same separation or terrace width in between. At a finite temperature, these steps also fluctuate. But due to the high energy cost for the formation of overhangs on the crystal surface, steps cannot cross each other. This non-crossing condition suppresses the step fluctuation. [Pg.872]

The simulation of a molecular system at a finite temperature requires the generation of a statistically significant set of points in phase space (so-called configurations), and the properties of a system can be obtained as averages over these points. For a many-particle system, the averaging usually involves integration over many degrees of freedom. [Pg.60]

Finite temperature being reduced to zero Kelvin, i.e. the use of static structures to represent molecules, rather than treating them as an ensemble of molecules in a distribution of states (translational, rotational and vibrational) corresponding to a (macroscopic) temperature. [Pg.401]

At finite temperature the chemical potentials can be calculated as follows. In the dilute solution approximation, the Gibbs free energy is given by ... [Pg.344]

Consider a physical system with a set of states a, each of which has an energy Hio). If the system is at some finite temperature T, random thermal fluctuations will cause a and therefore H a) to vary. While a system might initially be driven towards one direction (decreasing H, for example) during some transient period immediately following its preparation, as time increases, it eventually fluctuates around a constant average value. When a system has reached this state, it is said to be in thermal equilibrium. A fundamental principle from thermodynamics states that when a system is in thermal equilibrium, each of its states a occurs with a probability equal to the Boltzman distribution P(a) ... [Pg.326]

Carnot assumed that (a ) was true with a finite temperature difference this, however, would imply that no heat is destroyed even in a cycle. [Pg.66]

The approach to the evaluation of vibrational spectra described above is based on classical simulations for which quantum corrections are possible. The incorporation of quantum effects directly in simulations of large molecular systems is one of the most challenging areas in theoretical chemistry today. The development of quantum simulation methods is particularly important in the area of molecular spectroscopy for which quantum effects can be important and where the goal is to use simulations to help understand the structural and dynamical origins of changes in spectral lineshapes with environmental variables such as the temperature. The direct evaluation of quantum time- correlation functions for anharmonic systems is extremely difficult. Our initial approach to the evaluation of finite temperature anharmonic effects on vibrational lineshapes is derived from the fact that the moments of the vibrational lineshape spectrum can be expressed as functions of expectation values of positional and momentum operators. These expectation values can be evaluated using extremely efficient quantum Monte-Carlo techniques. The main points are summarized below. [Pg.93]

When estimating absorption from the ground state, we totally ignore the depletion of ground state population at finite temperatures, when the system spends some time in an excited state. This is fine because by the relevant temperatures, the excited state absorption dominates anyway (see Fig. 14 and note that an — e < co + e ). This case (i.e., e < 0) is somewhat less straightforward. Let us calculate... [Pg.156]

Mossbauer spectroscopy has been extensively used for studies of nanostructured materials and several reviews on magnetic nanoparticles have been published, see e.g. [6-8, 46 8]. The magnetic properties of nanoparticles may differ from those of bulk materials for several reasons. The most dramatic effect of a small particle size is that the magnetization direction is not stable at finite temperatures, but fluctuates. [Pg.220]

This result means that p(q)is constant in the range -qT < q < qF. At finite temperature, however, p(q) has a finite width of kBT at qF due to the Fermi distribution... [Pg.336]

In the perfectly ordered crystalline ground state, all polymer bonds are parallel and no solvent-polymer contacts are present. If we ignore disorder (vacancies, kinks) in the polymer crystal at finite temperatures, the free-energy density of the crystalline state is zero. [Pg.7]

Runge, K. J. Chester, G. V., Solid-fluid phase transition of quantum hard spheres at finite temperature, Phys. Rev. B 1988, 38, 135-162... [Pg.420]

As already stated in the introduction, no long-range order can be achieved at finite temperatures for strictly ID systems. Therefore the ground state of a spin chain can be schematized as in Figure 4.8 with domains of oppositely oriented... [Pg.101]

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