Kohn W and Sham L J 1965 Self-consistent equations including exchange and correlation effects Phys. Rev A 140 1133-8... [Pg.2198]

Calculated transition structures may be very sensitive Lo the level of theory employed. Semi-empirical methods, since they are parametrized for energy miriimnm structures, may be less appropriate for transition state searching than ab initio methods are. Transition structures are norm ally characterized by weak partial" bonds, that is, being broken or formed. In these cases UHF calculations arc necessary, and sometimes even the inclusion of electron correlation effects. [Pg.17]

Kohn W and L J Sham 1965. Self-consistent Equations Including Exchange and Correlation Effects. Physical Review A140 1133-1138. [Pg.181]

There have also been methods designed for use with perturbation theory and MCSCF calculations. Correlation effects are necessary for certain technically difficult molecules, such as CO, N2, HCN, F2, and N2O. [Pg.253]

Semiempirical, DFT, and ah initio methods also work well. Correlation effects are sometimes included for the sake of increased accuracy, but are not always necessary. One particular case for which correlation is often necessary is fluorine compounds. [Pg.285]

Azulene does have an appreciable dipole moment (0.8 The essentially single-bond nature of the shared bond indicates, however, that the conjugation is principally around the periphery of the molecule. Several MO calculations have been applied to azulene. At the MNDO and STO-3G levels, structures with considerable bond alternation are found as the minimum-energy structures. Calculations which include electron correlation effects give a delocalized n system as the minimum-energy structure. ... [Pg.536]

Methods based on Density Functional Theory also include some electron correlation effects (we ll consider them a bit later in this chapter). Of the traditional post-SCF methods, we ll be primarily using MP2, MP4, QCISD and QCISDfO in this work. [Pg.114]

Correct the base energy for residual correlation effects (to countera known deficiencies of truncating perturbation theory at fourth order) 1 computing the QCISD(T)/6-311G(d,p) energy. Subtract E from th energy to produce AE ... [Pg.151]

When Hartree-Fock theory fulfills the requirement that 4 be invarient with respect to the exchange of any two electrons by antisymmetrizing the wavefunction, it automatically includes the major correlation effects arising from pairs of electrons with the same spin. This correlation is termed exchange correlation. The motion of electrons of opposite spin remains uncorrelated under Hartree-Fock theory, however. [Pg.265]

Any method which goes beyond SCF in attempting to treat this phenomenon properly is known as an electron correlation method (despite the fact that Hartree-Fock theory does include some correlation effects) or a post-SCT method. We will look briefly at two different approaches to the electron correlation problem in this section. [Pg.265]

A disadvantage of all these limited Cl variants is that they are not size-consistent.The Quadratic Configuration Interaction (QCI) method was developed to correct this deficiency. The QCISD method adds terms to CISD to restore size consistency. QCISD also accounts for some correlation effects to infinite order. QCISD(T) adds triple substitutions to QCISD, providing even greater accuracy. Similarly, QCISD(TQ) adds both triples and quadruples from the full Cl expansion to QCISD. [Pg.267]

Self-Consistent Equations Including Exchange and Correlation Effects W. Kohn and L. J. Sham Physical Review 140 (1965) All33... [Pg.224]

We often split the exchange-correlation term into a sum of one part for exchange effects and one part for correlation effects. [Pg.225]

The parameterization of MNDO/AM1/PM3 is performed by adjusting the constants involved in the different methods so that the results of HF calculations fit experimental data as closely as possible. This is in a sense wrong. We know that the HF method cannot give the correct result, even in the limit of an infinite basis set and without approximations. The HF results lack electron correlation, as will be discussed in Chapter 4, but the experimental data of course include such effects. This may be viewed as an advantage, the electron correlation effects are implicitly taken into account in the parameterization, and we need not perform complicated calculations to improve deficiencies in fhe HF procedure. However, it becomes problematic when the HF wave function cannot describe the system even qualitatively correctly, as for example with biradicals and excited states. Additional flexibility can be introduced in the trial wave function by adding more Slater determinants, for example by means of a Cl procedure (see Chapter 4 for details). But electron cori elation is then taken into account twice, once in the parameterization at the HF level, and once explicitly by the Cl calculation. [Pg.95]

In practice only low orders of perturbation dreory can be carried out, and it is often observed that the HF and MP2 results differ considerably, the MP3 result moves back towards the HF and the MP4 moves away again. For well-behaved systems tlte correct answer is normally somewhere between the MP3 and MP4 results. MP2 typically overshoots the correlation effect, but often gives a better answer than MP3, at least if medium sized basis sets are used. Just as the first term involving doubles (MP2) tends to overestimate the correlation effect, it is often observed that MP4 overestimates the effect of the singles and triples contributions, since they enter the series for the first time at fourth order. [Pg.130]

Corrections due to remaining correlation effects are estimated by an empirical expression. [Pg.168]

The MP2 treatment recovers the majority of the correlation effect, and the CCSD(T) results with the cc-pVQZ basis sets are in good agreement with the experimental values. The remaining discrepancies of 9cm , 13cm and lOcm are mainly due to basis set inadequacies, as indicated by the MP2/cc-pV5Z results. The MP2 values are in respectable agreement with the experimental harmonic frequencies, but of course still overestimate the experimental fundamental ones by the anharmonicity. For this reason, calculated MP2 harmonic frequencies are often scaled by 0.97 for comparison with experimental results. ... [Pg.272]

Usually, geometries of transition states are significantly more sensitive with respect to method than are stmctures of stable species. Since electron correlation effects are of particular importance for these stmctures, the determination of transition states at the Hartree-Fock level should be avoided. It is recommended to compare the stmctural parameters of transition states obtained from different methods (for instance DFT and MP2) in order not to be misled. [Pg.5]

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