A surface crack with right-angular parallelepiped shape is illustrated in Fig.l. A schematic drawing of the positioning of this crack at the surface plane (xOy) is shown in Fig.2. The crack is oriented at an angle O with respect to the direction x of the applied field, and the applied field is considered to be magnetic field for simplicity. [Pg.687]

The algorithm for sizing of eraeks with complex cross-sections and unknown shapes based on the method was used in for sizing of cracks oriented perpendicularly to the applied field. This algoritlim is presented in Fig.3. In this paper, the same algorithm is applied readily to sizing of cracks with non-perpendicular orientation with respect to the applied field. [Pg.688]

It is suggested though that even more precise sizing of cracks with complex cross-sections and unknown shapes could be achieved using the distribution of the leakage magnetic field along two lines positioned above the surface of the sample and parallel to the direction of the applied field at the same distance from the centre of the crack and from its closer end. [Pg.692]

There are a number of complications in the experimental measurement of the electrophoretic mobility of colloidal particles and its interpretation see Section V-6F. TTie experiment itself may involve a moving boundary type of apparatus, direct microscopic observation of the velocity of a particle in an applied field (the zeta-meter), or measurement of the conductivity of a colloidal suspension. [Pg.184]

The effect known either as electroosmosis or electroendosmosis is a complement to that of electrophoresis. In the latter case, when a field F is applied, the surface or particle is mobile and moves relative to the solvent, which is fixed (in laboratory coordinates). If, however, the surface is fixed, it is the mobile diffuse layer that moves under an applied field, carrying solution with it. If one has a tube of radius r whose walls possess a certain potential and charge density, then Eqs. V-35 and V-36 again apply, with v now being the velocity of the diffuse layer. For water at 25°C, a field of about 1500 V/cm is needed to produce a velocity of 1 cm/sec if f is 100 mV (see Problem V-14). [Pg.185]

While field ion microscopy has provided an effective means to visualize surface atoms and adsorbates, field emission is the preferred technique for measurement of the energetic properties of the surface. The effect of an applied field on the rate of electron emission was described by Fowler and Nordheim [65] and is shown schematically in Fig. Vlll 5. In the absence of a field, a barrier corresponding to the thermionic work function, prevents electrons from escaping from the Fermi level. An applied field, reduces this barrier to 4> - F, where the potential V decreases linearly with distance according to V = xF. Quantum-mechanical tunneling is now possible through this finite barrier, and the solufion for an electron in a finite potential box gives... [Pg.300]

Fig. VIII-5. Schematic potential energy diagram for electrons in a metal with and without an applied field , work function Ep, depth of the Fermi level. (From Ref. 62.)... |

There are higher multipole polarizabilities tiiat describe higher-order multipole moments induced by non-imifonn fields. For example, the quadnipole polarizability is a fourth-rank tensor C that characterizes the lowest-order quadnipole moment induced by an applied field gradient. There are also mixed polarizabilities such as the third-rank dipole-quadnipole polarizability tensor A that describes the lowest-order response of the dipole moment to a field gradient and of the quadnipole moment to a dipolar field. All polarizabilities of order higher tlian dipole depend on the choice of origin. Experimental values are basically restricted to the dipole polarizability and hyperpolarizability [21, 24 and 21]. Ab initio calculations are an imponant source of both dipole and higher polarizabilities [20] some recent examples include [26, 22] ... [Pg.189]

Consider an ensemble composed of constituents (such as molecules) per unit volume. The (complex) density operator for this system is developed perturbatively in orders of the applied field, and at. sth order is given by The (complex). sth order contribution to the ensemble averaged polarization is given by the trace over the eigenstate basis of the constituents of the product of the dipole operator, N and = Tr A pp... [Pg.1182]

In order to illustrate some of the basic aspects of the nonlinear optical response of materials, we first discuss the anliannonic oscillator model. This treatment may be viewed as the extension of the classical Lorentz model of the response of an atom or molecule to include nonlinear effects. In such models, the medium is treated as a collection of electrons bound about ion cores. Under the influence of the electric field associated with an optical wave, the ion cores move in the direction of the applied field, while the electrons are displaced in the opposite direction. These motions induce an oscillating dipole moment, which then couples back to the radiation fields. Since the ions are significantly more massive than the electrons, their motion is of secondary importance for optical frequencies and is neglected. [Pg.1266]

Up to this point, we have calculated the linear response of the medium, a polarization oscillating at the frequency m of the applied field. This polarization produces its own radiation field that interferes with the applied optical field. Two familiar effects result a change in tlie speed of the light wave and its attenuation as it propagates. These properties may be related directly to the linear susceptibility The index of... [Pg.1267]

Here the collection of frequencies in the snnnnation may inclnde new frequencies in addition to those in siumnation of equation B1.5.21 for the applied field. The total polarization can be separated mto Imear, Pj, and nonlinear, parts ... [Pg.1272]

The linear snsceptibility, x]] is the factor that relates the indnced linear polarization to the applied field ... [Pg.1272]

The effect of an MW pulse on the macroscopic magnetization can be described most easily using a coordinate system (x, y, z) which rotates with the frequency about tlie z-axis defined by the applied field B. [Pg.1573]

Figure Bl.26.21. Potential energy curves for an electron near a metal surface. Image potential curve no applied field. Total potential curve applied external field = -E. ... |

A. Since tire applied field is red detuned, all A have negative values. Now in order for tire cooling mechanism to be effective tire optical pumping time tp should be comparable to tire time required for tire atom with velocity v to travel from tire bottom to tire top of a potential hill,... [Pg.2464]

Equation (Cl.4.35) yields two remarkable predictions first, tliat tire sub-Doppler friction coefficient can be a big number compared to since at far detuning Aj /T is a big number and second, tliat a p is independent of tire applied field intensity. This last result contrasts sharjDly witli tire Doppler friction coefficient which is proportional to field intensity up to saturation (see equation (C1.4.24). However, even tliough a p looks impressive, tire range of atomic velocities over which is can operate are restricted by tire condition tliat T lcv. The ratio of tire capture velocities for Doppler versus sub-Doppler cooling is tlierefore only uipi/uj 2 Figure Cl. 4.6 illustrates... [Pg.2465]

As an illustration, we consider a simple example of a top with a fixed point at the center of mass moving in an applied field not dissimilar from those encountered in molecular simulations. Specifically, we used... [Pg.358]

For isolated atoms, the polarisability is isotropic - it does not depend on the orientation of fhe atom with respect to the applied field, and the induced dipole is in the direction of the electric field, as in Equation (4.51). However, the polarisability of a molecule is often anisotropic. This means that the orientation of the induced dipole is not necessarily in the same direction as the electric field. The polarisability of a molecule is often modelled as a collection of isotropically polarisable atoms. A small molecule may alternatively be modelled as a single isotropic polarisable centre. [Pg.217]

All the chemical shifts are expressed in 5 units ppm of applied field and TMS as reference peak. [Pg.76]

FIGURE 13 4 An external magnetic field causes the two nuclear spin states to have different energies The difference in energy AE is proportional to the strength of the applied field... [Pg.523]

FIGURE 13 8 The induced magnetic field of the tt elec trons of (a) an alkene and (b) an arene reinforces the applied field in the regions where vinyl and aryl protons are located... [Pg.529]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.3 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.295 , Pg.318 , Pg.337 ]

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