Chronic toxicity data are preferred for deriving an annual average EQS (AA-EQS). Acute data are used to calculate a maximum acceptable concentration EQS (MAC-EQS) and can be used to derive the AA-EQS if insufficient chronic data are available, but an AA-EQS should not be derived exclusively on the basis of acute data. Guides to efficient decision making about the testing requirements for derivation of short- and long-term EQSs based on modes of action and other considerations were provided by Verhaar et al. (1992), de Wolf et al. (2005), and Hutchinson et al. (2006). [Pg.54]

NBL natural background level DWS drinking water standard AA-EQS annual average EQS (EU) MPA max. permissible addition (national) Ind. indicator parameter. [Pg.234]

Finally, PBDEs—mainly three commercial mixtures known as Penta-BDE, Octa-BDE, and Deca-BDE—are still widely used as flame retardants in products such as polymers, resins, electronic devices, building materials, textiles, and the polyurethane foam padding used in furniture and carpets. The intensive production and use of these compounds has made them ubiquitous in the environment and in biota.125,126 EPA is working with industry, governments, and environmental and public health groups to research and better understand the potential health risks posed by these substances.127 The European Commission is also aware of these risks to the environment and public health and has established EQS in the low ppt level. Thus, for Penta-BDE, the annual average (AA) EQS is 0.0005 pg L 1 for inland surface waters and 0.0002 pg L 1 for other surface waters. There... [Pg.148]

European Directive 2008/105/EC on environmental quality standards (EQS) in the field of water policy. A,4 annual average, MAC maximum allowable concentration... [Pg.74]

Since different meanings are ascribed to both annual profit and invested capital in Eq. (9-25), it is important to define the terms precisely. The invested capital may refer to the original total capital investment, the depreciated investment, the average investment, the current value of the investment, or something else. The annual profit may refer to the net annual profit before tax A vp, the net annual profit after tax Awp, the annual cash income before tax Aci, or the annual cash income after tax A vcf... [Pg.806]

In Eq. (9-27), i can be taken either on the basis of the net annual cash income for a particular year or on the basis of an average net annual cash income over the length of the hfe of the project. The equations corresponding to Eq. (9-26) based on depreciated and average investment are given respectively as follows ... [Pg.807]

In effec t, in computing the average net annual cash flow per dollar invested, the value of f p of Eq. (9-46) has been obtained for this example. From tables of the annuity present-worth factor/ p the value of the interest rate is found to be = 0.25 when f p = 0.5124 with n = 3 years. [Pg.831]

According to Stern (2006), the annual costs of emissions reduction, consistent with a 550 ppm C02-eq. stabilisation level, are likely to be in the range of -1.0 (net gain) to +3.5% of GDP by 2050, with an average estimate of approximately 1%, if strong action is taken now. [Pg.25]

For compounds with Kii/Vl larger than about 10 2 the overall air-water transfer velocity is approximately equal to the water-phase exchange velocity viw The latter is related to wind speed uw by a nonlinear relation (Table 20.2, Eq. 20-16). The annual mean of viw calculated from Eq. 20-16 with the annual mean wind speed ul0 would underestimate the real mean air-water exchange velocity. Thus, we need information not only on the average wind speed, but also on the wind-speed probability distribution. [Pg.903]

The monthly isotopic composition (8lsO) of lake evaporate from Sparkling Lake was estimated by use of eq 12. Monthly evaporation rate estimates were then used to calculate the weighted average annual 8lsO of lake evaporate, — 16.9%,. [Pg.86]

By use of eq 11, this isotopic information, and the average annual precipitation and evaporation rates (0.79 and 0.52 m/year, respectively), the average annual groundwater inflow rate to Sparkling Lake was estimated to be 0.27 m/year (expressed as the volumetric flow rate divided by the surface... [Pg.86]

Jantunen and Bidleman [46] estimated monthly and annual fugacity ratios and fluxes of toxaphene in Lake Superior. Their calculations used monthly average air concentrations of toxaphene over the lake, estimated from their parameters of Eq. 1 (Sect. 2.2). The concentration of toxaphene in surface water was assumed constant over the year, since measurements in August 1996 and May 1997 were not statistically different. However, we now know... [Pg.231]

Now consider risk in terms of degree of loss to a single asset. There are many risk measures in common use. First, consider the expected annualized loss (EAL). It is analogous to mean rate of failures as calculated in Eq. 34. If loss is measured in terms of repair cost, EAL is the average quantity that would be spent to repair the building every year. It can be calculated as... [Pg.256]

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