All that need be done is to measure q and q2 for a Carnot cycle operating between any two equilibrium states having different temperatures, then arbitrarily choose a number for the temperature of one of these states. The temperature of the other state will then be established, and these two temperatures establish a linear scale according to which all other equilibrium states can be measured with a suitable thermometer. [Pg.84]

Unfortunately, real Carnot cycles do not exist, so we cannot measure q and q2, although approximate values could be determined by expending great efforts. Fortunately, we don t have to do this, because the ratio V1/V2 or P1/P2 of an ideal gas at two equilibrium states 1 and 2 is also equal to Ti /T2, and hence to q jq2. Ideal gases don t exist either, but the ratio (V1/V2 or P1/P2) can be measured for real gases at various pressures and the value for P = 0 (where it will be equal to that of an ideal gas) determined by extrapolation. This is the way the ratio q /q2 or Ti IT2 is determined. [Pg.84]

When the two equilibrium states are the freezing and boiling points of water, this ratio is about 1.3661, a perfectly fixed, if imperfectly known number. If the temperature of the ice point is called 1000° A (degrees Anderson), the steam point is then 1336.1°A, and this is a valid thermodynamic temperature scale. However not [Pg.84]

Clearly, any number of thermodynamic scales exist, but one must be chosen, and the Kelvin scale is that one. Equally clearly, any number of empirical scales exist that are not thermodynamic scales, since for them q /q2 T1/T2. For example, the Celsius scale is not a thermodynamic scale since 100/0 is not even close to 1.3661. [Pg.85]

Let us determine the absolute temperature included in expression (3.1.14). Then we will establish the relation between various temperature scales. [Pg.177]

It is known, for example, that at water freezing temperatures, the density of air (basically, air consists of nitrogen) at sea level (pressure equals 10 Pa) is equal to 1.255 kg/m The mass of a molecule of nitrogen is 4.68X10 kg. To what absolute temperature in Kelvin s scale (K) does the temperature of water freezing (namely 0 °C) correspond From eq. (3.1.14), it follows that °C corresponds to zero. [Pg.177]

according to definition, water freezes at 273.15 K. According to the formula (3.1.12) at r = 0 K, any translational motion of molecules stops. Such a temperature is referred to as absolute zero. It corresponds to -273.15 °C. [Pg.177]

Both in degrees Kelvin and Celsius, the difference between water freezing and boiling is equal to 100 degrees therefore, in both of them the measurement of one degree is identical. Therefore between Celsius and Kelvin scale there is a ratio [Pg.177]

Experiments show that - 273.15°C (T = 0 K) is the lowest possible temperature limit. [Pg.177]

Charles s law At constant pressure the volume of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. [Pg.89]

Kelvin scale See absolute temperature. kephaUn See cephalins. [Pg.230]

There are an infinite number of other integrating factors X with corresponding fiinctions ( ) the new quantities T and. S are chosen for convenience.. S is, of course, the entropy and T, a fiinction of 0 only, is the absolute temperature , which will turn out to be the ideal-gas temperature, 0jg. The constant C is just a scale factor detennining the size of the degree. [Pg.335]

The coefficient of dE is the inverse absolute temperature as identified above. We now define the pressure and chemical potential of the system as... [Pg.392]

This equation describes the additional amount of gas adsorbed into the pores due to capillary action. In this case, V is the molar volume of the gas, y its surface tension, R the gas constant, T absolute temperature and r the Kelvin radius. The distribution in the sizes of micropores may be detenninated using the Horvath-Kawazoe method [19]. If the sample has both micropores and mesopores, then the J-plot calculation may be used [20]. The J-plot is obtained by plotting the volume adsorbed against the statistical thickness of adsorbate. This thickness is derived from the surface area of a non-porous sample, and the volume of the liquified gas. [Pg.1875]

free energy and AG the change in free energy during the reaction. R the gas constant and T the absolute temperature. [Pg.66]

The Boltzmann constant is ks and T the absolute temperature. — is the Dirac delta function. Below we assume for convenience (equation (5)) that the delta function is narrow, but not infinitely narrow. The random force has a zero mean and no correlation in time. For simplicity we further set the friction to be a scalar which is independent of time or coordinates. [Pg.265]

To prevent this flow, the pressure on the hotter side must be larger than the pressure on the colder side. The required pressure difference depends on the nature of the gas, its mean pressure and absolute temperature, the relation between its density and the pore size, and the temperature difference. However, it does not depend on the thickness of the plate. [Pg.177]

When the density Is sufficiently low that the pressure difference Is proportional to density, then the ratio of the absolute pressures on the two sides of the plate Is equal to the square root of Che ratio of tha absolute temperatures. [Pg.178]

Numerous mathematical formulas relating the temperature and pressure of the gas phase in equilibrium with the condensed phase have been proposed. The Antoine equation (Eq. 1) gives good correlation with experimental values. Equation 2 is simpler and is often suitable over restricted temperature ranges. In these equations, and the derived differential coefficients for use in the Hag-genmacher and Clausius-Clapeyron equations, the p term is the vapor pressure of the compound in pounds per square inch (psi), the t term is the temperature in degrees Celsius, and the T term is the absolute temperature in kelvins (r°C -I- 273.15). [Pg.389]

The Wien displacement law states that the wavelength of maximum emission, A , of a blackbody varies inversely with absolute temperature the product A T remains constant. When A is expressed in micrometers, the law becomes... [Pg.727]

Stefan s law states that the total energy / radiated by a blackbody per unit time and area (power per unit area) varies as the fourth power of the absolute temperature ... [Pg.728]

Therefore, the ratio of the number of ions to the number of neutrals desorbing from a heated filament depends not only on the absolute temperature but also on the actual surface coverage of ions and neutrals on the filament (C, C ) and crucially on the difference between the ionization energy and work function terms, I and (j). This effect is explored in greater detail in the following illustrations. [Pg.49]

The Boltzmann equation (Equation 18.2) shows that, under equilibrium conditions, the ratio of the number (n) of ground-state molecules (A ) to those in an excited state (A ) depends on the energy gap E between the states, the Boltzmann constant k (1.38 x 10" J-K" ), and the absolute temperature T(K). [Pg.124]

For particles of any shape at an absolute temperature T, Einstein showed that f is related to the experimental diffusion coefficient D by the expression... [Pg.110]

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