A still different approach to multilayer adsorption considers that there is a potential field at the surface of a solid into which adsorbate molecules fall. The adsorbed layer thus resembles the atmosphere of a planet—it is most compressed at the surface of the solid and decreases in density outward. The general idea is quite old, but was first formalized by Polanyi in about 1914—see Brunauer [34]. As illustrated in Fig. XVII-12, one can draw surfaces of equipo-tential that appear as lines in a cross-sectional view of the surface region. The space between each set of equipotential surfaces corresponds to a definite volume, and there will thus be a relationship between potential U and volume 0. [Pg.625]

Unlike (dHldp)j, (dUldV)j, does indeed vanish for real gases as the pressure goes to zero, but this is because the derivative is with respect to V, not because of the difference between U and H. At appreciable pressures (dT/dV)jjis almost invariably negative, because the Joule temperature, at which dfi/dThecomes negative, is extremely high (see figure A2.1.7). [Pg.358]

result valid only at high temperatures. At low temperatures, quantum mechanical attributes of a degree of freedom can partially or fully freeze it, thereby modifying or removing its contribution to U and... [Pg.392]

One can trivially obtain the other thennodynamic potentials U, H and G from the above. It is also interesting to note that the internal energy U and the heat capacity Cy can be obtained directly from the partition fiinction. Since V) = 11 exp(-p , ), one has... [Pg.399]

The Debye model is more appropriate for the acoustic branches of tire elastic modes of a hanuonic solid. For molecular solids one has in addition optical branches in the elastic wave dispersion, and the Einstein model is more appropriate to describe the contribution to U and Cj from the optical branch. The above discussion for phonons is suitable for non-metallic solids. In metals, one has, in addition, the contribution from the electronic motion to Uand Cy. This is discussed later, in section (A2.2.5.6T... [Pg.414]

An integration by parts was used to deduce equation (A2.2.155) from equation (A2.2.154). Comparing the results for U and P, one finds that, just as for the classical gas, for ideal quanUim gases, also, the relation U = PFis satisfied. In the above results it was found that P = P(pp) and N)IV =n = n Cpp). In principle, one... [Pg.426]

U, and model calculations suggest that nonnally has values in the neighbourhood of 1 eV (10 J moD ) for the simplest redox processes. [Pg.605]

Let Ap, Au and AT denote the deviations of the mass density, p, the velocity field, u, and the temperature, T, fiom their fiill equilibrium values. The fluctuating, linearized Navier-Stokes equations are... [Pg.705]

Baliicani U and Zoppi M 1994 Dynamics of the Liquid State (Oxford Oxford University Press)... [Pg.758]

The are many ways to define the rate of a chemical reaction. The most general definition uses the rate of change of a themiodynamic state function. Following the second law of themiodynamics, for example, the change of entropy S with time t would be an appropriate definition under reaction conditions at constant energy U and volume V ... [Pg.759]

Warnatz J, Maas U and Dibble R W 1999 Combustion Physioal and Chemioal Fundamentals, Modelling and Simulation, Experiments, Polutant Formation 2nd edn (Heidelberg Springer)... [Pg.794]

Maas U and Pope S B 1992 Simplifying chemical kinetics intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds in composition space Comb. Flame 88 239... [Pg.796]

The observation of a bend progression is particularly significant. In photoelectron spectroscopy, just as in electronic absorption or emission spectroscopy, the extent of vibrational progressions is governed by Franck-Condon factors between the initial and final states, i.e. the transition between the anion vibrational level u" and neutral level u is given by... [Pg.879]

Baer M, Faubel M, Martinez-Haya B, Rusin L, Tappe U and Toennies J P 1999 J. Chem. Rhys. 110 10 231... [Pg.882]

In principle, one can do beder by allowing for R-dependence to U and T. If we allow them to vary linearly with R, then we have Gordon s method [42]. However, the higher order evaluation in this case leads to a much more cumbersome theory that is often less efficient even though larger steps can be used. [Pg.985]

The standard log-derivative propagator now corrects for the difference between U and Uprising a Simpson-nile integration. The specific fomuilas are... [Pg.987]

Reider G A, Hdfer U and Heinz T F 1991 Desorption-kinetics of hydrogen from the Si(111)7 7 surface J. Chem. Phys. 94 4080-3... [Pg.1303]

scattering curve from an isotropic two-phase structure havmg sharp phase boundaries can be given by eqnation (B 1.9.81). In fact, this equation can also be derived from the deneral xpression of scattering (61.9.56). The derivation is as follows. If we assume qr= u and use the Taylor expansion at large q, we can rewrite (61.9.56) as... [Pg.1403]

Riehie U and Hdchii M 1973 The theory and technique of high pressure freezing Freeze-Etching Technique and Appiications ed E L Benedetti and P Favard (Paris Societe Frangaise de Microscopie Eiectronique) pp 31-61... [Pg.1651]

Van Hove M A, Moritz W, Over H, Rous P J, Wander A, Barbieri A, Materer N, Starke U and Somorjai G A 1993 Automated determination of complex surface structures by LEED Surf. Sc . Rep 19 191-229... [Pg.1777]

Hoffmann H, Mayer U and Krisohanitz A 1995 Struoture of aikyisiioxane monoiayers on siiioon surfaoes investigated by externai refieotion infrared speotrosoopy Langmuir 1304-12... [Pg.1797]

Mintz M H, Atzmony U and Shamir N 1987 Initial adsorption kinetics of oxygen on polycrystalline copper Surf. Sc/. 185 413-30... [Pg.1825]

Holzapfel W, Finkele U, Kaiser W, Oesterhelt D, Scheer H, Stilz H U and Zinth W 1989 Observation of a bacteriochlorophyll anion radical during the primary charge separation in a reaction center Chem. Rhys. Lett. 160 1-7... [Pg.1999]

Holzapfel W, Finkele U, Kaiser W, Oesterhelt D, Scheer H, Stilz H U and Zinth W 1990 Initial... [Pg.1999]

Hefter U and Bergmann K 1988 Spectroscopic detection methods Atomic and Moiecuiar Beam Methods vol 1, ed G Scoles et a/(New York Oxford University Press) pp 193-253... [Pg.2087]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.1087 , Pg.1089 , Pg.1093 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.1087 , Pg.1089 , Pg.1093 ]

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