From the methodological point of view, the studies of the BSGC using the data of satellite altimeter measurements of sea level elevation (SLE) anomalies occupy the position between direct measurements and diagnostic calculations of the currents. In order to obtain vectors of the surface currents from altime-... [Pg.173]

The periods of the first few modes of the seiches are quite close to the characteristic timescales of the wind forcing of the Baltic Sea. The spatial scales of the atmospheric low-pressure systems are comparable with the length scale of the Baltic Sea. Therefore, the first mode will be excited most likely. If strong pressure systems pass the Baltic Sea such that during half of the period of the first mode the wind blows from the southwest to the northeast and during the following half period in the opposite direction then the sea level elevations of the Baltic Sea are forced resonantly and a storm surge may occur. [Pg.29]

Moreover, the Kelvin wave can control the water exchange between two basins connected by a channel. The basic physics of this process can be reduced to the Rossby adjustment process in a channel of uniform depth and uniform width. This problem was considered theoretically by Gill (1976) as an initial problem with a steplike sea level distribution in the channel. The results are similar for abarotropic and a baroclinic two-layer flow however, the sea level elevation must be replaced by the elevation of the interface and the barotropic long wave phase velocity by the baroclinic phase velocity, which is much smaller than the barotropic velocity. This implies that the baroclinic Rossby radius is more than one order of magnitude smaller than the barotropic radius. [Pg.32]

Here it is the vector of the horizontal velocity, U the vertically integrated horizontal velocity, w is the vertical velocity, r is the sea-level elevation, V/, the horizontal nabla operator, q a source term of water flux, T the temperature, S the salinity, p the pressure, and p is the density. Moreover,/is the inertial frequency,/= 2 1 sin 0, where 1 Zn (1 I 1/365.2425)724 h is the earth s angular velocity and 0 is the latitude. Turbulent viscosity is indicated by the term D, . Wind forcing enters the scheme as a vertical boundary condition. The equations are solved usually in spherical coordinates, but are written here for simplicity in Cartesian form. [Pg.586]

Finally, the stack size must be determined. First, determine the draft effect of the firebox. Assume sea level elevation, 100°F outside air. [Pg.16]

Second, they may be referenced to atmospheric pressure at some standard condition of temperature (often 15.6°C (60°F)), sea level elevation, and humidity (often 50% relative). Unfortunately there is no standard standard condition. [Pg.71]

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