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** Chemical oscillators periodic perturbation **

** Effect of Small Perturbations on Pile Period **

** Example Doubly periodic surface perturbation **

** Periodic perturbation of a flat surface **

J. M. Luttinger and W. Kohn, Motion of electrons and holes in perturbed periodic fields. Physics Review, 97, 869-883 (1955). [Pg.147]

An automobile is sometimes equipped with two catalysts, which are respectively called a start up converter and an underfloor converter (8). The perturbation period of an exhaust gas at the underfloor catalyst, which is located farther away from the engine than the start up converter, will be a few seconds at the shortest. However, the perturbation period of an exhaust gas at the start up converter will be a few milliseconds at the longest. Hence, the lime resolution on a millisecond time scale is necessary. [Pg.194]

The sorted input will be a symmetric, slightly perturbed periodic signal of frequency 1. It is hoped that the non-periodic perturbations are distributed over the whole spectrum and therefore are of little influence for the spectral analysis. [Pg.1638]

When sound propagates in the liquid, it results in small periodical fluctuations of the temperature and pressure. The reaction, whose equilibrium depends on the temperature or pressure and the relaxation time is comparable with the perturbation period, absorbs sound according to the law P = P(,exp(-a/), where P and P are the amplitude at the / distance and the initial amplitude of the sound vibration, and a is the absorption coefficient at 1 cm. The absorption coefficient at the wavelength is p = ak = Itiaulvi, where k, u, and co are the wavelength, rate, and angular frequency (rad/s) p depends on co and relaxation time x as follows ... [Pg.301]

Adsorbates can physisorb onto a surface into a shallow potential well, typically 0.25 eV or less [25]. In physisorption, or physical adsorption, the electronic structure of the system is barely perturbed by the interaction, and the physisorbed species are held onto a surface by weak van der Waals forces. This attractive force is due to charge fiuctuations in the surface and adsorbed molecules, such as mutually induced dipole moments. Because of the weak nature of this interaction, the equilibrium distance at which physisorbed molecules reside above a surface is relatively large, of the order of 3 A or so. Physisorbed species can be induced to remain adsorbed for a long period of time if the sample temperature is held sufficiently low. Thus, most studies of physisorption are carried out with the sample cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium. [Pg.294]

Smith W R 1972 Perturbation theory in the classical statistical mechanics of fluids Specialist Periodical Report vol 1 (London Chemical Society)... [Pg.557]

For a periodic perturbation, 5 (AB(t)) is also periodic. The complex admittance [30] is given by... [Pg.713]

There are two generic types of external fields that are of general interest. In one of these, which relates to the scattering experiments, the external fields are to be taken as periodic perturbations... [Pg.719]

B2.5.3.2 PERIODIC SMALL PERTURBATION FROM EQUILIBRIUM AND ULTRASOUND ABSORPTION... [Pg.2121]

The previous subsection described single-experiment perturbations by J-jumps or P-jumps. By contrast, sound and ultrasound may be used to induce small periodic perturbations of an equilibrium system that are equivalent to periodic pressure and temperature changes. A temperature amplitude 0.002 K and a pressure amplitude 5 P ss 30 mbar are typical in experiments with high-frequency ultrasound. Fignre B2.5.4 illustrates the situation for different rates of chemical relaxation with the angular frequency of the sound wave... [Pg.2121]

Time reversibility. Newton s equation is reversible in time. Eor a numerical simulation to retain this property it should be able to retrace its path back to the initial configuration (when the sign of the time step At is changed to —At). However, because of chaos (which is part of most complex systems), even modest numerical errors make this backtracking possible only for short periods of time. Any two classical trajectories that are initially very close will eventually exponentially diverge from one another. In the same way, any small perturbation, even the tiny error associated with finite precision on the computer, will cause the computer trajectories to diverge from each other and from the exact classical trajectory (for examples, see pp. 76-77 in Ref. 6). Nonetheless, for short periods of time a stable integration should exliibit temporal reversibility. [Pg.51]

** Chemical oscillators periodic perturbation **

** Effect of Small Perturbations on Pile Period **

** Example Doubly periodic surface perturbation **

** Periodic perturbation of a flat surface **

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